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Gloria Naylor Essay

A Descriptive Analysis Of Nigger: The Meaning Of A Word By Gloria Naylor

A Descriptive Analysis of Nigger: The Meaning of a Word by Gloria Naylor

What is the rhetor’s purpose?

In the essay “Nigger: the meaning of a word” Gloria Naylor discusses the essence of a word and how it can mean different things to different people in a myriad of situations. Depending on race, gender, societal status and age Naylor outlines how a word like ‘nigger’ can have different meanings within one’s own environment. Naylor discusses how a word can go from having a positive to a negative connotation merely due to how it is spoken and by whom. Naylor shares a personal experience with her audience as she describes the first time she really “heard” the word ‘nigger’. A young white boy in her third grade class spit it in her face. Naylor states, “I didn’t know what a nigger was, but I knew that whatever it meant, it was something he shouldn’t have called me.” (Naylor 460)

Naylor writes about her own personal experience and is obviously biased. This, while powerful, can also be seen as a limited view of the subject. Her audience only understands thorough her eyes and her experiences.

Naylor is trying to educate her audience by sharing a personal experience. I think she wants her audience to sit back and think about the words they use and how others may use them and how this can affect others. Naylor wants her audience to understand how she was affected not only by a young boy but also by how she didn’t really think about the word ‘nigger’ until the moment it was used to hurt her. She is striving to make her audience think about the words they use and hear and how the context these words are immersed in can change the meaning of them.

Who composes the target audiences?

To be a part of Naylor’s target audience one must have obviously had experience with language and how people use it. She is targeting those who have heard and/or used the word “nigger” before.

Naylor wants her audience to take on her experience and be empathetic towards her. She doesn’t do this in a seemingly pathetic way, as she seeks no pity. She outlines her experience and wants her audience to understand her view and how this view came to be.

What roles or personas does the rhetor assume?

Naylor assumes the role of an educator in her writing. She assumes a persona of a young girl experiencing a new way of understanding a word. Naylor wants her audience to understand how important the context in which a word is used is so she writes about her personal experience, of which she is the sole authority.

What it the rhetor’s tone?

Naylor assumes a matter of fact tone in her writing. She does not demand or point her finger at any one group. She simply relays her experience in such a way that
you can’t help but think about what it must have been like for her as a young girl experiencing a new meaning of a word in such a way.

She does not take on a superior or subordinate tone; rather it is like...

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Gloria Naylor

Naylor in 2007

Born(1950-01-25)January 25, 1950
New York, U.S.
DiedSeptember 28, 2016(2016-09-28) (aged 66)
Christiansted, U.S. Virgin Islands, U.S.
Cause of deathHeart attack
NationalityAmerican
OccupationNovelist

Gloria Naylor (January 25, 1950 – September 28, 2016) was an American novelist, known for novels including The Women of Brewster Place (1982), Linden Hills (1985) and Mama Day (1988).

Early life and education[edit]

Naylor was born in New York on January 25, 1950, the oldest child of Roosevelt Naylor and Alberta McAlpin. The Naylors, who had been sharecroppers in Robinsonville, Mississippi, had migrated to Harlem to escape life in the segregated South and seek new opportunities in New York City.[1] Her father became a transit worker; her mother, a telephone operator. Even though Naylor's mother had little education, she loved to read, and encouraged her daughter to read and keep a journal.[2] Before her teen years, Gloria began writing prodigiously, filling many notebooks with observations, poems, and short stories.[3]

In 1963, Naylor's family moved to Queens and her mother joined the Jehovah's Witnesses. An outstanding student who read voraciously, Naylor was placed into advanced classes in high school, where she immersed herself in the work of nineteenth century British novelists. Her educational aspirations, however, were delayed by the shock of the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in her senior year. She decided to postpone her college education, becoming a missionary for the Jehovah's Witnesses in New York, North Carolina, and Florida instead. She left seven years later as "things weren't getting better, but worse."[4]

From 1975 to 1981 Naylor attended Medgar Evers College and then Brooklyn College while working as a telephone operator, majoring in nursing before switching to English.[4] It was at that time that she read Toni Morrison's novel The Bluest Eye, which was a pivotal experience for her. She began to avidly read the work of Zora Neale Hurston, Alice Walker, and other black women novelists, none of which she had been exposed to previously. She went on to earn an M.A. in African-American studies at Yale University; her thesis eventually became her second published novel, Linden Hills.[3]

Naylor earned her bachelor's degree in English at Brooklyn College of the City University of New York in 1981. She obtained a master's degree in African American Studies from Yale University in 1983. She was an honorary member of Delta Sigma Theta sorority.

Career[edit]

Naylor's debut novel, The Women of Brewster Place, was published in 1982 and won the 1983 National Book Award in the category First Novel.[5] It was adapted as a 1989 television miniseries of the same name by Oprah Winfrey's Harpo Productions.

Naylor's work is featured in such anthologies as Breaking Ice: An Anthology of Contemporary African-American Fiction (ed. Terry McMillan, 1990), Calling the Wind: Twentieth-Century African-American Short Stories (ed. Clarence Major, 1992) and Daughters of Africa (ed. Margaret Busby, 1992).

During her career as a professor, Naylor taught writing and literature at several universities, including George Washington University, New York University, Boston University, and Cornell University.

Naylor died of a heart attack on September 28, 2016, while visiting St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands. She was 66.[6][7]

Influence[edit]

During her studies at Brooklyn College, Naylor became immersed in the works of African-American female authors such as Zora Neale Hurston, Alice Walker, and especially Toni Morrison. Drawing inspiration from these authors, Naylor began writing stories centered on the lives of African-American women, which resulted in her first novel, The Women of Brewster Place.[8]

Works[edit]

The Women of Brewster Place[edit]

Gloria Naylor won critical and popular acclaim for her first published novel, The Women of Brewster Place. In that book, as in her successive novels, including Linden Hills,Mama Day, and The Men of Brewster Place, Naylor gave an intense and vivid depiction of many social issues, including poverty, racism, homophobia, discrimination against women, and the social stratification of African Americans.

Vashti Crutcher Lewis, a contributor to the Dictionary of Literary Biography, commented on the "brilliance" of Naylor's first novel, derived from "her rich prose, her lyrical portrayals of African Americans, and her illumination of the meaning of being a black woman in America."

In The Women of Brewster Place and her other novels, Naylor focuses on "themes of deferred dreams of love (familial and sexual), marriage, respectability, and economic stability, while observing the recurring messages that poverty breeds violence, that true friendship and affection are not dependent on gender, and that women in the black ghettos of America bear their burdens with grace and courage," stated Lewis.[3]

Awards[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Gloria Naylor." YourDictionary.
  2. ^ abDecker, Ed, and Jennifer York. "Naylor, Gloria 1950–."Contemporary Black Biography. 2004.
  3. ^ abc"Gale - Gloria Naylor". go.galegroup.com. Retrieved 2017-06-05. 
  4. ^ ab"Gloria Naylor." Voices from the Gaps. 1996. University of Minnesota. 2012.
  5. ^"National Book Awards – 1983". National Book Foundation. Retrieved 2012-02-28. (With acceptance speech by Naylor and essays by Rachel Helgeson and Felicia Pride from the Awards' 60-year anniversary blog.)
    • First novels or first works of fiction were recognized from 1980 to 1985.
  6. ^Britni Danielle, "Rest in Power: Gloria Naylor, Author of 'The Women of Brewster Place', Has Died, Ebony Magazine, October 3, 2016.
  7. ^Associated Press, "Gloria Naylor, Who Wrote 'The Women of Brewster Place,' Dies", New Daily News, October 4, 2016.
  8. ^ ab"Naylor, Gloria." Critical Survey of Long Fiction. Ed. Carl Rollyson. 4th ed. Vol. 6. Pasadena, CA: Salem Press, 2010. 3321-3327.
  9. ^"CANDACE AWARD RECIPIENTS 1982-1990, Page 3". National Coalition of 100 Black Women. Archived from the original on March 14, 2003. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Prahlad, Sw. Anand. 1998. "All chickens come home to roost: The function of proverbs in Gloria Naylor's Mama Day." Proverbium, 15: 265-282.
  • Drieling, Claudia, 2011. Constructs of "Home" in Gloria Naylor's Quartet. Würzburg, Germany: Königshausen & Neumann, 325 pp. ISBN 978-3-8260-4492-2.

External links[edit]