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Radha Ravi Mla Bibliography

1. The New College, Chennai – The New College is an institution of higher education in Chennai, South India. Established in 1951, the institution is one of the colleges of the University of Madras. The college was established by the Muslim Educational Association of Southern India to meet the requirements of the Muslim students in South India. The college is located in the center of Chennai on a 15-acre campus and it is one of the few colleges in Chennai located within the city hub. The older buildings are notable for their Indo-Saracenic architecture which stand in contrast to the new educational blocks, the older buildings are being renovated. The same campus also houses New College Institute of Management, MEASI Academy of Architecture, though primarily established for providing higher education to Muslim students, its doors are open to students from all communities. Deeniyath classes for Muslim students, and moral instruction classes for others, are conducted during working hours, working hours are 9am to 6pm. The college offers instruction in 23 courses in Humanities, Sciences and it is one of the few institutions in Chennai offering Arabic language studies up to the Doctor of Philosophy. Student volunteer organisations include NCC, NSS, YRC and a Rotaract club, the NCC has two divisions in the college - the Armoured Squadron and the Battalion. Armoured In 1 TN ARMD SQN NCC students see and drive armoured tanks, the NCC Armoured Squadron is led by Captain. M. Anees Ahmed, a senior professor in the Department of Physics. Battalion 2 COMPANY1 TAMIL NADU BATALION NCC deals with rifles, the cadets learn rifles and signals. The battalion is led by H. Zahid Hussain who is a professor in the Economics Department. Every year he creates 160 cadets, the campus is cosmopolitan with students from India and abroad, especially from Islamic nations such as Saudi Arabia, Oman, Sudan, Malaysia and Bangladesh. In spite of the college being run by a Muslim management, the college represents numerous sports activities all over the city. The college conducts elections to select Students Chairman and General Secretary and it is one of the few institutions in South India that offered an MBA Programme in 1987. Mohamed Khalilullah, Invitee A. K. Abdulla, Invitee Noman H. Millwala and it is approved by AICTE, affiliated to the University of Madras, accredited by the National Board of Accreditation, and ISO 9001-2000 certified. MEASI IM has produced gold medals and ranks both in the full-time and part-time MBA programs and it has produced 100% results almost every year. Students of the institute have taken part in inter-collegiate management meets conducted by business-schools and have brought laurels, more than 75% of the students have been placed in companies through the placement cell of the institute, every year

2. Actor – An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. Simplistically speaking, the person denominated actor or actress is someone beautiful who plays important characters, the actor performs in the flesh in the traditional medium of the theatre, or in modern mediums such as film, radio, and television. The analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής, literally one who answers, the actors interpretation of their role pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs even when the actor is playing themselves, as in forms of experimental performance art, or, more commonly, to act, is to create. Formerly, in societies, only men could become actors. When used for the stage, women played the roles of prepubescent boys. The etymology is a derivation from actor with ess added. However, when referring to more than one performer, of both sexes, actor is preferred as a term for male performers. Actor is also used before the name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the term dates to the 1950–1960s. As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper, Im an actor – I can play anything. The U. K. performers union Equity has no policy on the use of actor or actress, an Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the. subject divides the profession. In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that Actress remains the term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. However, player remains in use in the theatre, often incorporated into the name of a group or company, such as the American Players. Also, actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as players, prior to Thespis act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, dance, and in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are commonly called Thespians, the exclusively male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama, tragedy, comedy, and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded considerably under the Romans, as the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, pantomime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies, dances, from the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder

3. M. R. Radha – Madras Rajagopala Radhakrishnan Naidu, popularly known by his stage name, M. R. Radha, was an Indian film actor and politician. He was given the title of Nadigavel by E. V. R, periyar in a stage, for his acting prowess. After a successful career on stage in his years, he acted in films from the 1930s to the 1970s, and then, giving up films, he went back to his first love. Radha left his home at an early age due to a quarrel with his mother in which she declined to give a piece of fish to eat. Radha was a theatre artist who performed in more than 5000 stage shows. Starting at the age of 10, he appeared at first in small roles, Radha gained popularity with the success of his stage play Ratha Kanneer. His performance in the 1954 film version of the play, directed by Krishnan-Panju, brought wider recognition of his talents, Radha played both villain roles and comedic roles. After the 1950s, filmmakers created roles specially for him, and he often overshadowed even main actors like MGR and he was an active member of the Self-Respect Movement, and was known for his atheistic views. Towards the end of his career, however, he started acting in Hindu devotional films like Velum Mayilum Thunai, on 12 January 1967, Radha and a producer K. N. Vasu of Muthukumaran Pictures visited the actor and politician M. G. Ramachandran at his home to talk about a future project, during the conversation, Radha suddenly got up from his chair and shot twice at Ramachandrans left ear. Both bullets got lodged in Ramachandrans neck, Radha then turned the gun on himself and tried to shoot himself, but the bullet just scratched his right temple. Radha and Ramachandran were admitted to the Government General Hospital, Chennai, the only eye witness for the shooting event was producer Vasu. The verdict was delivered on November 4,1967, as majority of the evidences were against Radha, he was sentenced to a seven year term. At the High Court hearing, considering his age, the sentence was reduced to three and a half years, after being released from jail, Radha died of jaundice on 17 September 1979 aged 72 at his residence in Thiruchirappalli. His popularity had improved and his funeral procession was one of the largest in South India and his other son Radha Ravi is also an actor and his daughter Raadhika Sarathkumar is an actress and producer. M. R. Radha at the Internet Movie Database A scene from Paava Mannippu

4. Raadhika – Radikaa Sarathkumar is an award winning India movie and television actress, entrepreneur and producer who works predominantly in the Tamil and Telugu film industries. She is the founder and CEO of Radaan Mediaworks Pvt, India Limited, which has produced serials such as Chitti, Annamalai, Selvi, Arasi, Chellame, Vaani Rani and Idi Katha Kadu. Radikaa has acted in over 200 films in Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada and she was a judge on Vijay TVs Jodi Number One Season 4. She has also produced a film titled Meendum Oru Kaadhal Kathai and she won six Filmfare Awards South

5. Film – A film, also called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession, the process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry. The word cinema, short for cinematography, is used to refer to the industry of films. Films were originally recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process, the adoption of CGI-based special effects led to the use of digital intermediates. Most contemporary films are now fully digital through the process of production, distribution. Films recorded in a form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. It runs along a portion of the film exclusively reserved for it and is not projected, Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. They reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them, Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens. The visual basis of film gives it a power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into the language of the viewer, some have criticized the film industrys glorification of violence and its potentially negative treatment of women. The individual images that make up a film are called frames, the perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called phi phenomenon. The name film originates from the fact that film has historically been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for a motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photoplay. The most common term in the United States is movie, while in Europe film is preferred. Terms for the field, in general, include the big screen, the screen, the movies, and cinema. In early years, the sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film, scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, much terminology later used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images, the magic lantern, probably created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, which was achieved by various types of mechanical slides

6. Television – Television or TV is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, and in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a set, a television program. Television is a medium for entertainment, education, news, politics, gossip. Television became available in experimental forms in the late 1920s. After World War II, a form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, and television sets became commonplace in homes, businesses. During the 1950s, television was the medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in the US, for many reasons, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions greatly increased in popularity, another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution that is substantially higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats, 1080p, 1080i, in 2013, 79% of the worlds households owned a television set. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel, mainly LEDs, major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, plasma, and even fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are gradually expected to be replaced by OLEDs, also, major manufacturers have announced that they will increasingly produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s, Television signals were initially distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and. Until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, a standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is correctly called a video monitor rather than a television, the word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning far, and Latin visio, meaning sight. The Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907 and it was. formed in English or borrowed from French télévision. In the 19th century and early 20th century, other. proposals for the name of a technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote. The abbreviation TV is from 1948, the use of the term to mean a television set dates from 1941

7. Tamil language – Tamil is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and also by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians. Tamil is a language of two countries, Singapore and Sri Lanka. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and it is also used as one of the languages of education in Malaysia, along with English, Malay and Mandarin. Tamil is also spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and it is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. Tamil is one of the classical languages in the world. Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions from 500 BC have been found on Adichanallur and 2 and it has been described as the only language of contemporary India which is recognizably continuous with a classical past. The variety and quality of classical Tamil literature has led to it being described as one of the classical traditions. A recorded Tamil literature has been documented for over 2000 years, the earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is dated from ca.300 BC – AD300. It has the oldest extant literature among other Dravidian languages, the earliest epigraphic records found on rock edicts and hero stones date from around the 3rd century BC. More than 55% of the inscriptions found by the Archaeological Survey of India are in the Tamil language. Tamil language inscriptions written in Brahmi script have been discovered in Sri Lanka, the two earliest manuscripts from India, acknowledged and registered by the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997 and 2005, were written in Tamil. In 1578, Portuguese Christian missionaries published a Tamil prayer book in old Tamil script named Thambiraan Vanakkam, the Tamil Lexicon, published by the University of Madras, was one of the earliest dictionaries published in the Indian languages. According to a 2001 survey, there were 1,863 newspapers published in Tamil, Tamil belongs to the southern branch of the Dravidian languages, a family of around 26 languages native to the Indian subcontinent. It is also classified as being part of a Tamil language family, the closest major relative of Tamil is Malayalam, the two began diverging around the 9th century CE. According to linguists like Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, Tamil, as a Dravidian language, descends from Proto-Dravidian, linguistic reconstruction suggests that Proto-Dravidian was spoken around the third millennium BC, possibly in the region around the lower Godavari river basin in peninsular India. The material evidence suggests that the speakers of Proto-Dravidian were of the associated with the Neolithic complexes of South India. The next phase in the reconstructed proto-history of Tamil is Proto-South Dravidian, the linguistic evidence suggests that Proto-South Dravidian was spoken around the middle of the second millennium BC, and that proto-Tamil emerged around the 3rd century BC. The earliest epigraphic attestations of Tamil are generally taken to have been shortly thereafter

8. Chellamae – Chellamae is a 2004 Tamil film directed by Gandhi Krishna, who directed the critically acclaimed Nila Kaalam. The film stars Vishal, Reema Sen, Bharath, Bhanupriya, the films score and soundtrack are composed by Harris Jayaraj. This film marks the debut of Vishal Krishna as an actor. It was dubbed into Telugu as Prema Chadaragam, Mythili showers love and affection on Viswa, her neighbor, since childhood. Viswa happens to be the son of a rich business tycoon Rajasekhar. Mythili treats Viswa as her brother and spends all her time with him. Meanwhile, Ragunandan, a tax officer, turns up at Rajasekhars house for an IT raid. They eventually fall in love and after a series of incidents they get wed locked, the trouble begins when Viswa reaches Goa in search of Mythili. He manages to kidnap Mythili and bring her to Chennai, the reasons for Viswas obsession and possessiveness towards Mythili unfolds as the movie progresses. Ragunandan who comes back to Goa finds the house deserted, the next door neighbor tells him that Mythili eloped with Viswa. He then begins to track her down and finds that the duo had left to Chennai, Ragunandan reaches Chennai, but is unable to tell his parents the real plight. With the help of Harichandra, his colleague, he tries to trace her out, a chance look at the video of their marriage throws light on Viswa’s hatred towards Ragunandan. Now Ragunanthan is convinced that Mythili did not go on her own will and he confronts Viswa’s father but he is of no help. Finally he traces out the location of Viswa’s hideout, Mythili on the other hand pleads with Viswa to release her. She explains that she cannot be his wife and can see him only as a son or a little brother, the plea falls on deaf ears. In a racy climax on high seas, the three protagonists fight it out and Mythili hits Viswa with the boat oars and he plunges into the sea in an unconscious condition taking Mythili along. Ragunanthan comes at the nick of the time to save her, even though she had killed him because of her attack on him, she is filled with remorse. The soundtrack and background score was composed by Harris Jayaraj, all Lyrics are written by Vairamuthu. Lyrics are written by Veturi Sundararama Murthy, Chandrabose, Sahathi. G

9. Asin – Asin Thottumkal, known mononymously as Asin, is a former Indian actress and trained Bharathanatyam dancer. She has received three Filmfare Awards and she began her acting career in the South Indian film industry, but now appears predominantly in Bollywood films. She speaks eight languages, and dubs her own films and she is the only Malayali actress, other than Padmini, to have dubbed in her own voice for all her films, irrespective of language. Asin has been referred to as the Queen of Kollywood by online portals in 2007 and she is a member of the Bollywood 100 Crore Club. M. Kumaran S/O Mahalakshmi was her debut in Tamil and a huge success and she received her Filmfare Best Tamil Actress Award for her most noted critically acclaimed performance in her third Tamil film, Ghajini. In 2013, Asin was conferred with Pride of South Indian Cinema award at SIIMA for her contribution to Tamil cinema.9 billion worldwide, Asin won the Filmfare Best Female Debut Award and many accolades for Ghajini. 2011 marked the most successful phase of Asins Bollywood career, as she starred in Anees Bazmees romantic comedy, Ready, the film was a major hit at the box office, collecting ₹1.84 billion worldwide. In 2012, Asin first starred in Sajid Khans multistarrer Housefull 2 which collected more than ₹1 billion and she then featured in Bol Bachchan and Khiladi 786, which were also commercially successful with both grossing over ₹1 billion. Asin was born in Cochin in Kerala to a Syro Malabar Catholic family and her father Joseph Thottumkal is an Ex-CBI officer and later managed several businesses. Her mother Seline Thottumkal, who moved settlements from Kochi to Chennai to Mumbai to live with her daughter, is a surgeon, according to custom, Asin was to be named Mary, after her paternal grandmother. Asins father however named her Asin as the name had a beautiful meaning, Asin has quoted that her name means pure and without blemish. She states that the A in her name is from Sanskrit meaning without and she attended Naval Public School from LKG through X standard. She then attended St. Teresas School in Kochi for her Plus Two education, after that she attended St. Teresas College in Kochi, a college affiliated with MG University, where she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in English Literature. Asins first assignment was an advertisement for BPL Mobile and she debuted in a Malayalam film Narendran Makan Jayakanthan Vaka in 2001, at the age of 15. In the same year she won the Santosham Best Actress Award for her performance alongside Akkineni Nagarjuna in her second Telugu film and her following two Telugu films, Lakshmi Narasimha and Gharshana, both portrayed Asin as the love interest for police officers and both were successful ventures. Asins first Tamil language film was M. Kumaran S/O Mahalakshmi, Asin reprised her role from her film Amma Nanna O Tamila Ammayi for the remake, which saw her portraying a Malayali girl instead of the Tamil girl in the original. The movie subsequently went on to super hits in Tamil cinema during 2004, after a brief return to Telugu films, to do Chakram, she appeared in Ullam Ketkumae. After the release of Ullam Ketkumae, Asin was cited as a heroine of the Tamil film industry after starring in blockbuster films like Ghajini, Sivakasi, Varalaru

10. Sri Lankan Civil War – The Sri Lankan Civil War was an armed conflict fought on the island of Sri Lanka. After a 26-year military campaign, the Sri Lankan military defeated the Tamil Tigers in May 2009, bringing the civil war to an end. For over 25 years, the war caused significant hardships for the population, environment and the economy of the country, with an initial estimated 80, 000–100,000 people killed during its course. In 2013, the UN panel estimated additional deaths during the last phase of the war, during the early part of the conflict, the Sri Lankan forces attempted to retake the areas captured by the LTTE. The LTTE then declared they would resume their struggle to achieve statehood. Following the end of the war, the Sri Lankan government claimed Sri Lanka as the first country in the world to eradicate terrorism on its own soil. Following the LTTEs defeat, pro-LTTE Tamil National Alliance dropped its demand for a separate state, the origins of the Sri Lankan Civil War lie in the continuous political rancor between the majority Sinhalese and the minority Tamils. The roots of the conflict lie in the British colonial rule when the country was known as Ceylon. However, British Gov. William Manning actively encouraged the concept of representation and created the Colombo town seat in 1920. However, in 1944 J. R. Jayawardene moved in the State Council that Sinhala should replace English as the official language, approximately over 700,000 Indian Tamils were made stateless. Over the next three decades more than 300,000 Indian Tamils were deported back to India and it wasnt until 2003–55 years after independence—that all Indian Tamils living in Sri Lanka were granted citizenship, but by this time they only made up 5% of the islands population. In 1956 Prime Minister S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike passed the Sinhala Only Act and this was seen as a deliberate attempt to discourage the Sri Lankan Tamils from working in the Ceylon Civil Service and other public services. The Tamil-speaking minorities of Ceylon viewed the Act as linguistic, cultural, many Tamil-speaking civil servants/public servants were forced to resign because they werent fluent in Sinhala. This was a prelude to the 1956 Gal Oya riots and the 1958 widespread riots in which thousands of Tamil civilians perished, the civil war was a direct result of the escalation of the confrontational politics that followed. In the late 1960s documents relating to a separate Tamil state of Tamil Eelam began to circulate, at this time Anton Balasingham, an employee of the British High Commission in Colombo, began to participate in separatist activities. He later migrated to Britain, where he would become the chief theoretician of the LTTE, in the late 1960s several Tamil youth, among them Velupillai Prabhakaran, also became involved in these activities. They carried out several operations against pro-government Tamil politicians, Sri Lanka police. During the 1970s Policy of standardization was initiated, under the policy, university selection was calculated based on language

11. Ready (2011 film) – Ready is a 2011 Indian action romantic comedy film directed by Anees Bazmee, starring Salman Khan and Asin in the lead roles. It also features Paresh Rawal, Arya Babbar and Mahesh Manjrekar in supporting roles, while Sanjay Dutt, Ajay Devgan, Kangana Ranaut, Zarine Khan and it is a remake of the 2008 Telugu film, Ready directed by Sreenu Vaitla starring Ram and Genelia. The songs are composed by Pritam, while the score is composed by Sandeep Shirodkar. The first look was unveiled on 5 April 2011, while the trailer was released on 15 April 2011. The film was released on 3 June 2011, upon release, Ready became the second highest opening-day grosser, as well as the second highest weekend grossing Bollywood film, after Dabangg, another Salman Khan-starrer. It holds the record for being second highest grossing Bollywood film of 2011, Ready starts with ready-witted Prem helping his childhood friend Khushi to elope with Raju. Khushis intended bridegroom Gaurav reveals that he also has a girlfriend, Kiran, the elopement angers Khushis father, Mr. Pathak and Prems family, the Kapoors. Prem manages to pacify his family members, the Kapoors decide to get Prem engaged to Pooja. Prem is sent to receive Pooja at the airport, however, a young woman named Sanjana, who has just run away from her own wedding, overhears Prem telling his uncle about ditching Pooja. Since nobody from Prems family has ever seen Pooja, Sanjana pretends to be Prems intended fiancée, Sanjana, posing as Pooja, goes to stay with the Kapoors and wins the hearts of the entire family, except Prem, who gets irritated with her. Meanwhile, Sanjanas maternal uncles, Amar Choudhary and Suraj Choudhary, each uncle wants Sanjana to marry his respective brother-in-law to inherit her wealth. Sanjana and Prem escape from Suraj Chaudharys goons by taking a lift in the car of Mr. Lehri, Prem outwits the goons and sends Surajs son Aryan into a coma while escaping. Suraj Choudhary takes the help of Mr. Lehri to get to know who ran away with Sanjana, by then, Prem finds out Sanjanas true identity, and she tells him about her uncles trying to get her married. Prem and Sanjana fall in love and decide to marry, However, her uncle Suraj Chaudhary takes her away. Then the Kapoors come to know about her identity, they still want her as Prems wife. Prem assures Sanjana that she should stay with her uncle, Prem pretends to be the nephew of CA Balidaan Bhardwaaj a. k. a. Bali, an accountant who serves Sanjanas uncles. Prem convinces Suraj and Amar Chaudhary not to get either of their brothers-in-law married to Sanjana, instead, he suggests the daughters of Americas billionaires K. K. and B. K

12. Sri Lanka – Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia near south-east India. Sri Lanka has maritime borders with India to the northwest and the Maldives to the southwest, Sri Lankas documented history spans 3,000 years, with evidence of pre-historic human settlements dating back to at least 125,000 years. Its geographic location and deep harbours made it of strategic importance from the time of the ancient Silk Road through to World War II. Sri Lanka was known from the beginning of British colonial rule until 1972 as Ceylon, Sri Lankas recent history has been marred by a thirty-year civil war which decisively ended when the Sri Lankan military defeated the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in 2009. A diverse and multicultural country, Sri Lanka is home to many religions, ethnic groups, in addition to the majority Sinhalese, it is home to large groups of Sri Lankan and Indian Tamils, Moors, Burghers, Malays, Kaffirs and the aboriginal Vedda. Sri Lanka has a rich Buddhist heritage, and the first known Buddhist writings of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka is a republic and a unitary state governed by a semi-presidential system. The legislative capital, Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, is a suburb of the capital and largest city. Along with the Maldives, Sri Lanka is one of the two countries in South Asia that are rated among high human development on the Human Development Index. In antiquity, Sri Lanka was known to travellers by a variety of names, according to the Mahavamsa, the legendary Prince Vijaya named the land Tambapanni, because his followers hands were reddened by the red soil of the area. In Hindu mythology, such as the Mahabharata, the island was referred to as Lankā, in Tamil, the island is referred to as Eelam. Ancient Greek geographers called it Taprobanā or Taprobanē from the word Tambapanni, as a British crown colony, the island was known as Ceylon, it achieved independence as the Dominion of Ceylon in 1948. The country is known in Sinhalese as Śrī Laṃkā and in Tamil as Ilaṅkai, in 1972, its formal name was changed to Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka. Later in 1978 it was changed to the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, as the name Ceylon still appears in the names of a number of organisations, the Sri Lankan government announced in 2011 a plan to rename all those over which it has authority. The pre-history of Sri Lanka goes back 125,000 years, the era spans the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and early Iron Ages. Among the Paleolithic human settlements discovered in Sri Lanka, Pahiyangala and it is said that Kubera was overthrown by his demon stepbrother Ravana, the powerful emperor who built a mythical flying machine named Dandu Monara. The modern city of Wariyapola is described as Ravanas airport, early inhabitants of Sri Lanka were probably ancestors of the Vedda people, an indigenous people numbering approximately 2,500 living in modern-day Sri Lanka. According to the Mahāvamsa, a written in Pāḷi, the original inhabitants of Sri Lanka are the Yakshas and Nagas. Ancient cemeteries that were used before 600BC and other signs of advanced civilization has also discovered in Sri Lanka

13. Salman Khan – Abdul Rashid Salim Salman Khan, credited as Salman Khan, is an Indian film actor, producer, television personality, singer and philanthropist. In a film career spanning more than twenty five years, Khan has received numerous awards, for his role in Karan Johars romantic drama Kuch Kuch Hota Hai, Khan was awarded the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor. Ten of the films in which Khan has acted in have accumulated gross earnings of over ₹1 billion and he is the only actor to star in the highest-grossing Bollywood films of nine separate years. Khan topped Forbes India charts for 2014, in terms of fame and revenues. According to the Forbes 2015 list of Celebrity 100, The Worlds Top-Paid Entertainers 2015, in addition to his acting career, Khan is a stage performer and an active humanitarian through his charity non-profit organisation, Being Human. Khans off-screen life is marred by controversy and legal troubles, for the last of these, Khan was sentenced to five years imprisonment in 2015, but was later acquitted. Khan is the eldest son of screenwriter Salim Khan and his first wife Sushila Charak and his paternal ancestors were Pathan from present-day Afghanistan who immigrated to Indore, Madhya Pradesh. Khans mother is a Maharashtrian, whose father Baldev Singh Charak comes from Jammu-Kashmir, Khans stepmother is Helen, a former actress. Salman finished his schooling at St. Stanislaus High School in Bandra, Mumbai, as did his younger brothers Arbaaz, earlier, he studied at The Scindia School, Gwalior for a few years along with younger brother Arbaaz. He attended St. Xaviers College in Mumbai and dropped out, Salman Khan made his acting debut with a supporting role in the 1988 film Biwi Ho To Aisi in which his voice was dubbed by someone else. His first leading role in a Bollywood movie was in Sooraj R. Barjatyas romantic family drama Maine Pyar Kiya and it earned him his first nomination for a Best Actor at Filmfare, but the much expected Filmfare Award for Best Male Debut was awarded to Sooraj Barjatya. Maine Pyar Kiya had also dubbed in Spanish as Te Amo. This 125-minute film also proved its universal appeal with a glorious 10-week premiere run at Lima, in Telugu as Prema Paavuraalu, it crossed 25 weeks at Visakhapatnam and had 100 plus day run at six centres in Andhra Pradesh. It was also dubbed in Tamil as Kaadhal Oru Kavithai and in Malayalam as Ina Praavukal. 1990 saw one film release starring Khan, Baaghi, A Rebel for Love, in the same year, Khan co-starred with Sanjay Dutt and Madhuri Dixit in the Romance drama film Saajan. The movie was a critical and financial success, despite these early successes, nearly all of his 1992–1993 releases resulted in box office failures. Khan returned to success in 1994 with his collaboration with director Sooraj Barjatya in the romance Hum Aapke Hain Koun. co-starring Madhuri Dixit. During the 1995 awards season, the film won 3 Filmfare Awards for the Best Film, Best Director and it also won the National Award for being the most popular film of the year

14. R. Sarathkumar – Ramanathan Sarathkumar is an Indian film actor, journalist, politician, the former president of the South Indian Film Artistes Association and former body builder. Sarathkumar has acted in more than 130 Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu and he can speak Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada and English fluently. In 1986, Sarathkumar started his career in the Telugu film Samajamlo Sthree. He first acted in roles, and later played minor roles before establishing himself as a lead actor in the subsequent years earning him the title Supreme Star in Tamil cinema. He has won two Tamil Nadu State Film Awards and three Filmfare Awards South, in 2007, he launched a new political party All India Samathuva Makkal Katchi in Tamil Nadu claiming to carry out the ideals of K. Kamaraj. He is the former Member of Legislative Assembly of Tenkasi constituency and he served as the president of the Nadigar Sangam from 2006 to 2015 for three consecutive terms. R. Sarathkumar was born on 14 July 1954 to Ramanathan and his father Ramanathan worked at the All India Radio before joining the Press Information Bureau of India while his mother Pushpaleela was a housewife. Sarathkumar is the youngest child in his family, he had two siblings, a brother, the late Sudarshan Ramanathan and an elder sister Mallika Kandaswamy. His mother Pushpaleela died on 26 October 2013, Sarathkumar started his schooling at the Raja Muthiah High School, after his family relocated from Delhi to Chennai. He then moved on to the Central School in the Indian Institute of Technology Madras, being an avid sports enthusiast, he played football, cricket, and hockey, representing his school and college teams. He also joined the NCC, becoming an Air Wing Cadet and he was one of the cadets who marched in the Republic Day Parade of 1970. After completing his pre-university levels at Loyola College, he was graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics from The New College. He later became a bodybuilder and earned the ‘Mr. Madras’ title in 1974 and he then moved to Bangalore to become a reporter for the Dinakaran News Daily. Soon afterwards, he shifted his energies towards running his own business, Sarathkumar made his acting debut, in 1986, in the Telugu film Samajamlo Sthree at the behest of a producer friend. In 1988, while running his travel agency in Chennai, Sarathkumar got an opportunity to act as well as produce in the Tamil film Kan Simittum Neram, the film was directed by Kalaivanan Kannadasan, he co-starred with Karthik and Ambika. In 1989, R. Sarathkumar was spotted by Raju, the personal make-up man of actor Vijayakanth, finally, R. Sarathkumar acted as a villain in Pulan Visaranai and the film turned out to be a blockbuster. He won a Cinema Express Award for Best Villain for his role, in 1990, he teamed up for the second time with Kalaivanan Kannadasan for the film Mr. Karthik which flopped at the box office. He acted few Tamil films in supporting roles such as Salem Vishnu, Sirayil Sila Raagangal, Mounam Sammadham, Puriyaadha Pudhir marked the first collaboration of Sarathkumar and the director K. S. Ravikumar

15. Academy Awards – The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the Academy Award of Merit, which has become commonly known by its nickname Oscar. The awards, first presented in 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, are overseen by AMPAS, the awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now live in more than 200 countries and can be streamed live online. The Academy Awards ceremony is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony and its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, and the Grammy Awards for music and recording – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 89th Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2016, were held on February 26,2017, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, the ceremony was hosted by Jimmy Kimmel and was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,048 Oscars have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 88th, the first Academy Awards presentation was held on May 16,1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people. The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel, the cost of guest tickets for that nights ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists, directors and other participants in the industry of the time. The ceremony ran for 15 minutes, winners were announced to media three months earlier, however, that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since then, for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11,00 pm on the night of the awards. The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and he had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier, this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. With the fourth ceremony, however, the system changed, for the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on March 27,1957, until then, foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies always end with the Academy Award for Best Picture. The Academy also awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting, see also § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. The five spokes represent the branches of the Academy, Actors, Writers, Directors, Producers. The model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio El Indio Fernández, sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons design. The statuettes presented at the ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze

16. Tamil Nadu – Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai, Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. The state shares a border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the eleventh-largest state in India by area and the sixth-most populous, the state was ranked sixth among states in India according to the Human Development Index in 2011, with the second-largest state economy after Maharashtra. Tamil Nadu is the second largest state economy in India with ₹13,842 billion in gross domestic product after Maharashtra. Tamil Nadu was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a Multidimensional Development Index in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India and its official language is Tamil, which is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. Tamil Nadu is home to natural resources. In addition, its people have developed and continue classical arts, classical music, historic buildings and religious sites include Hindu temples of Tamil architecture, hill stations, beach resorts, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, and eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula, the ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is very rudimentary Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as a site for further excavation. About 60 per cent of the epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu, according to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. Mahadevan claimed that the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, the date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature, numismatic, archaeological and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about six centuries, from 300 BC to AD300. Three dynasties, namely the Chera, Chola and Pandya, ruled the area of present-day Tamil Nadu, the Chera ruled the whole of present-day Kerala and parts of western Tamil Nadu comprising Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Karur, Salem and Erode districts from the capital of Vanchi Muthur. The Chola dynasty ruled the northern and central parts of Tamil Nadu from their capital, Uraiyur, All three dynasties had extensive trade relationships with Rome, Greece, Egypt, Ceylon, Phoenicia, Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia. Trade flourished in commodities such as spices, ivory, pearls, beads, Chera traded extensively from Muziris on the west coast, Chola from Arikamedu and Puhar and Pandya through Korkai port. A Greco-Roman trade and travel document, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea gives a description of the Tamil country, besides these three dynasties, the Sangam era Tamilakam was also divided into various provinces named nadu, meaning country

Annamalai is a 1992 Indian Tamil-languagedrama film directed by Suresh Krishna and produced by Rajam Balachander and Pushpa Kandasamy under Kavithalaya Productions. A remake of 1987 the Hindi film Khudgarz, the film stars Rajinikanth, Kushboo and Sarath Babu in the lead roles with Radha Ravi, Nizhalgal Ravi and Manorama playing supporting roles. The film revolves around a poor milkman who befriends the son of the businessman. The latter's father who hates their friendship drives a wedge between them by bulldozing the house. Annamalai challenges his friend that he will become a successful businessman. Rest of the film shows whether they are united or not.

The production began with Vasanth being selected as director who later opted out due to personal reasons. Suresh Krishna replaced him to direct thus marked his first collaboration with Rajinikanth. Principal photography of the film began at AVM Studios and the filming held at various places. The score and soundtrack was composed by Deva and lyrics for all songs were written by Vairamuthu. The cinematography was handled by P. S. Prakash and editing was handled by the duo Ganesh Kumar. The dialogues for the film were written by Shanmugasundaram.

It was remade into Telugu in 1993 as Kondapalli Raja with Venkatesh, Suman and Nagma,[1] and into Kannada in 2003 as Gokarna starring Upendra, Rakshita and Madhu Bangarappa.[2] The film was released on 27 June 1992 became a blockbuster at box-office and was the highest-grossing film in Rajinikanth's career until 1995 when the record was broken by Baashha.

Plot

Annamalai (Rajinikanth) is a milkman, while Ashok (Sarath Babu) is the owner of a five star hotel in Chennai. They both are very close friends from childhood days. But Ashok’s father (Radha Ravi) does not like his son’s friendship with a poor milkman. Annamalai is kind-hearted and is innocent. He falls in love with Subbu (Kushboo). Ashok falls in love with a poor girl Shanthi (Rekha) and Annamalai arranges Ashok and Shanthi’s wedding. This angers Ashok's father as he thinks Shanthi does not have the status to become his daughter in law.

Annamalai encounters a problem with Ekambaram (Vinu Chakravarthy) following which Ekambaram understands Annamalai’s good nature. Annamalai’s small home along with a few cents of empty land is located in prime location and Radharavi pressurizes Ashok to buy that land so that they can construct one more star hotel. Ashok initially hesitates as he does not want to mix business and friendship, but later agrees and asks Annamalai with hesitation. But Annamalai happily accepts and also agrees to give the land for free of cost. Ashok feels proud of Annamalai and informs his father that Annamalai has to be made a shareholder in the new hotel. Ashok's father agrees but decides to cheat Annamalai and gets sign in empty papers.

The star hotel is constructed and Ashok's father plans to demolish Annamalai’s home which is located next to the hotel. Also, Ashok's father and Ashok's cousin Sarkunam (Nizhalgal Ravi), forge documents and take control of Annamalai’s empty land. Annamalai learns of this plan and picks up quarrel with Ashok's father. Ashok interrupts and he misunderstands Annamalai without knowing the truth for fighting with Ashok's father. Ashok gets angry and demolishes Annamalai’s home which is in the remembrance of Annamalai’s father. Annamalai gets shocked seeing Ashok’s activities and challenges that he will also become rich and take revenge on Ashok.

Ekambaram helps Annamalai to secure funds and he starts a small sweet business and over a few years he becomes so rich and he also builds a star hotel in Chennai which becomes more popular than Ashok’s hotel. Sarkunam steals money from Ashok and knowing this, Ashok asks him to leave. Sarkunam joins Annamalai’s hotel and also gets married to Annamalai’s sister, Vaishnavi. Annamalai wins Ashok and become the president of hotels association and Ashok also faces financial troubles. Annamalai’s daughter and Ashok’s son are college-mates and love each other, much to Annamalai's anger. Ashok and Annamalai appear for a public auction and the auction price keeps increasing. Ashok wins the auction for Rs.12 Crores despite his father asking him not to quote such a huge amount as this was a trick played by Annamalai to increase the price.

Ashok has no money to pay for the auction and is forced to sell his bungalow to get money. Annamalai purchases Ashok’s bungalow thereby winning the challenge made years ago. But Annamalai gives the registration document to his mother (Manorama) and asks her to handover to Ashok itself as he does not want to punish his friend. Ashok and his father realizes their mistake and apologise to Manorama knowing Annamalai's kind heart. Annamalai also gets to know that it was only Radharavi and Sarkunam who forged the documents and Ashok was unaware of the his father’s plans. In the meantime Sarkunam tries to kill both Ashok and Annamalai and try to take Annamalai’s properties. But Ashok and Annamalai fight together and Sarkunam realises his mistake. Annamalai and Ashok finally join together and become best friends again.

Cast

Production

Originally, Kavithalaya Productions had chosen Visu as the director of Annamalai. But due to some contradiction with Rajinikanth, he opted out and they hired Vasanth.[3] Due to "personal reasons", Vasanth too left and Suresh Krissna was later finalized for the director's part, after K. Balachandar had requested him to do so.[4][5]

When Suresh Krissna came on board the script wasn't complete and the shooting started in a hurry as the film release date had already been fixed as on June 27, 1992.[5] Suresh recalled that Shanmugasundaram, the film's dialogue writer narrated him the one liner of the plot, Suresh felt that detailing should be done to the script to which Shanmugasundaram assured that it can be done during the shoot.

When the title of the film was announced as Annamalai, few people has misgivings about the title as it would create a negative connation. Balachander and Rajinikanth had decided on the title and refused to change it. Annamalai was launched at AVM Studios at the venue of Pillaiyar temple. The film's Muhurat shot was held in a set of a court room, it was a comedy scene where Rajini would save Sarathbabu from a criminal offence. Suresh removed the scene from the film as he felt that this scene had no bearing on the script.

Radharavi revealed that he wasn't interested to play elderly characters but agreed to appear in Annamalai after Rajini requested him to act.[7]

The scene where Rajini enters into a ladies hostel and gets terrified by a snake was shot at Chakra House, Alwarpet. A snake was brought specially for the scene. Owner of the snake earlier worked in previous films of Rajini. Suresh asked his assistants Nagappan and K. Natraj to check the details about snake charmer. Suresh recalled that he covered his nervousness with his smile. Suresh told Prakash, the film's cinematographer to use zoom lens so that he could adjust a camera according to the situation. After the scene was finished, the members of the crew enjoyed the shot. Suresh congratulated Rajini and asked him how "did he performed so well and was it planned ?", For which Rajini answered it was not planned and expressions in the scene were a result of his fear. In the same scene, Shanmugasundaram came with initial dialogues to convey the fear of Rajini. Suresh felt that dialogues were reduntant in such situation. Rajini insisted to keep Kadavule Kadavule (Oh God! Oh God!) as the dialogue. Suresh agreed to keep the dialogue as it went well into the situation of the scene.

Suresh wanted the picturisation of "Vanthenda Paalkaaran" to be vibrant and colourful stating that he got inspired from the Hindi songs of Amitabh Bachchan. The scene where Rajini shows his face to the camera was extended in slowmotion by Suresh as fans will feel as if he looks towards the audience. The song was choreographed by Prabhu Deva. The title song "Annamalai" where Rajini and Kushboo appeared in a periodic costumes was shot at Fern Hill Palace Hotel while the matching shots were shot at Sivaji Gardens. Suresh shot the song sequence in a technique where the lip sync is perfect while the dance movements being fast revealing that he got inspired from the song "Mamavukku Koduma" from Punnagai Mannan (1986).

Suresh Krissna was responsible for the words 'SUPERSTAR' forming in blue dots on the screen followed by the words 'RAJNI' in yellow, which became set standard for all future Rajini films. Annamalai set another benchmark of introducing Rajini's character through introduction songs.[5]

Soundtrack

The music of the film has been composed by Deva, with the lyrics penned by Vairamuthu.[14]Annamalai marked Deva's first collabaration with Rajini. KB chosen Deva as a composer due to a misunderstanding with Ilaiyaraja. Rajini and Suresh were initially worried with the choice of Deva. When Suresh met Deva, he had already composed the song "Annamalai Annamalai" when Vasanth was initially the director of the film.

The song "Vanthenda Paalkaaran" is said to be inspired from a Kannada poem about cow which Rajini had suggested, the poem talked about the cow which is a deity and useful to the human. Vairamuthu grasped the core of the poem and added the details of cow being helpful and also added image boosting lyrics in the song to cater his fans.

The dialogues from the film was used in the song "Rathiri", composed by Santhosh Narayanan for Pizza (2012).[16]

No. Song Singers Duration
1 "Annamalai Annamalai" S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K.S. Chitra 03:54
2 "Kondayil Thaazham Poo" S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K.S. Chitra 04:46
3 "Oru Pen Pura" K.J. Yesudas 04:50
4 "Rekkai Katti Parakudhu" S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, K.S. Chitra 04:53
5 "Vanthenda Paalkaran" S. P. Balasubrahmanyam 04:23
6 "Vetri Nichayam" S. P. Balasubrahmanyam 01:44

Reception

During the time of shooting, political scenario wasn't quite favourable to Rajini. The new government of Jayalalitha implemented a new rule where posters of films were prohibited in the city. Luckily, the lack of promos only increased the hype and worked greatly to the film's advantage.[5]

The film was a blockbuster and completed a 175-day run at the box office. The film is rumored to have grossed about ₹ 150 million and was the highest-grossing film in Rajinikanth's career until 1995 when the record was broken by Baasha.[17] The collections of Annamalai sent tremors everywhere. Annamalai exceeded normal regional collections making the film producers all over India sit up and take notice. With Annamalai, Rajini's range increased and made him the highest paid actor in India till now. Tamil Manila Congress and DMK ally prioritized 'Annamalai Cycle', and won the 1996 elections by a huge margin.[5][18]

Legacy

Jai stated that his character from Engeyum Eppodhum (2011) "was almost modelled on the lines of Rajini Sir in the first half of Annamalai".[19] Suresh Krishna directed Aarumugam in 2009 which critics compared with Annamalai due to its similar plot and characterisations.[20]

The quote from the film that became popular were: "Naan Solradaiyum Seiven, Soladadeiyum Seiven" (English: I’ll do what I say, I’ll also do what I don’t say).[21] The scene where Rajini challenges Sarath Babu was included by Behindwoods.com in its list of "Top 20 Mass Scenes".[22]

The scenes from the film were parodied in Parthale Paravasam (2001),[23]Boss Engira Bhaskaran (2010),[24]Karuppasamy Kuthagaithaarar (2007) and Thamizh Padam (2010).[25]

References

Bibliography

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Annamalai

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