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1. India – India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety

2. Swami Abhedananda – Swami Abhedananda, born Kaliprasad Chandra was a direct disciple of the 19th century mystic Ramakrishna Paramahansa and the founder of Ramakrishna Vedanta Math. He was born in north Calcutta on 2 October 1866 and was named Kaliprasad Chandra and his father was Rasiklal Chandra and his mother was Nayantara Devi. In 1884, at the age of 18, while studying for the final examination under the University of Calcutta, he went to Dakshineswar. After his Masters death in 1886, he plunged into intense sadhana, by shutting himself up in a room at the Baranagar matha, after the death of Ramakrishna, he formally became a Sanyasi along with Vivekananda and others, and came to be known as Swami Abhedananda. For the next ten years, of his life as a monk he travelled extensively throughout India, during this time he met several famous sages like Pavhari Baba, Trailanga Swami and Swami Bhaskaranand. He went to the sources of the Ganges and the Yamuna and he was a forceful orator, prolific writer, yogi and intellectual with devotional fervour. In 1896, Vivekananda was in London, when he asked Abhedananda to join him, and propagate the message of Vedanta in the West, finally, he returned to India in 1921, after attending the Pan-Pacific Education Conference at Honolulu. In 1922, he crossed the Himalayas on foot and reached Tibet and he formed the Ramakrishna Vedanta Society in Kolkata in 1923, which is now known as Ramakrishna Vedanta Math. In 1924, he established Ramakrishna Vedanta Math in Darjeeling in Bengal Presidency, in 1927, he started publishing Visvavani, the monthly magazine of the Ramakrishna Vedanta Society, which he edited from 1927 to 1938, and which is still published today. In 1936, he presided over the Parliament of Religions at the Town Hall, Calcutta and he died on 8 September 1939 at Ramakrishna Vedanta Math. At the time of his death he was the last surviving disciple of Ramakrishna. Gospel of Ramakrishna, by Swami Abhedananda, published by The Vedanta Society,1907. Online version Vedanta Philosophy, Three Lectures on Spiritual Unfoldment, Three Lectures on Spiritual Unfoldment, published by The Vedanta Society,1901. Online version How to be a Yogi, by Swami Abhedananda, Online Version The Sayings of Sri Ramakrishna, by Ramakrishna, Abhedananda. Published by The Vedanta society,1903, India and Her People, by Swami Abhedananda. Published by Satish Chandra Mukherjee,1906. Online Version Ideal of Education, published by Ramakrishna Vedanta Math,1945. Online version An Introduction of Philosophy of Panchadasi, by Swami Abhedananda, published by Ramakrishna Vedanta Math,1948. Online version Abhedananda in India in 1906, by Abhedananda, published by Ramakrishna Vedanta Math,1968

3. Abul Hasan Ali Hasani Nadwi – Abul Hasan Ali Hasani Nadwi also spelt Abul Hasan Ali Hasani Nadvi was an Indian, Islamic scholar, and author of over fifty books in various languages. He was one of the most important theorists of the revivalist movement and he was born on 24 November 1914 into a scholastic family. He received his education at his home in Takia, Raebareli, Uttar Pradesh. His mother initiated his early training in Quranic studies, he later entered formal education in Arabic, Persian and his father, Hakim Syed Abdul Hai, wrote an 8-volumes Arabic encyclopaedia called Nuzhat al Khawatir. Nadwi received most of his education at the Dar al-Ulum of the Nadwat al-Ulama in Lucknow. He wrote the book Maza Khasiral Alam be Inhitat al-Muslimeen, translated into English as Islam, the Islamist Syed Qutb commended Nadwis writings for his use of the word jahiliyya to describe not a particular age in history but a state of moral corruption and materialism. 1962 Secretary of the first inaugural session and foundation of Muslim World League in Mecca,1980 King Faisal Award 1980 Chairman of Islamic Centre Oxford. 1984 President of League of Islamic Literature,1999 ‘Islamic Personality of Year’ award established by Sheikh Mohammed of United Arab Emirates. In 1951, during his pilgrimage to Makkah the key-bearer of the Kaabah. He was subsequently given the key to the Kaabah to allow him to enter whenever he chose during his pilgrimage, Abul Hasan Ali Hasani Nadwi died on 23 Ramadan,1420 AH in Raebareli, India at the age of 85

4. Pandurang Shastri Athavale – Swadhyaya is a self-study process based on the Bhagavad Gita which has spread across nearly 100,000 villages in India, with over 120 million adherents. He was also noted for his discourses on the Bhagavad Gita, the Vedas, Pandurang Vaijnath Athavale was born on 19 October 1920 in the village of Roha in Maharashra India. He was one of five born to the Sanskrit teacher Vaijanath Athavale. When Athavale was twelve years old, his set up an independent course of study for the young boy. Thus, Athavale was taught in a very similar to that of the Tapovan system of ancient India. In 1942, he started to give discourses at the Srimad Bhagavad Gita Pathshala, Athavale read diligently in the Royal Asiatic Library for a period of 14 years, at a young age, he was well-known to have read every piece of non-fiction literature. In 1954, he attended the Second World Philosophers Conference, held in Japan, there, Athavale presented the concepts of Vedic ideals and the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. Many participants were impressed by his ideas but wanted evidence of such ideals being put into practice in India, nobel Prize–winning physicist Dr. Arthur Holly Compton was particularly enchanted with Athavales ideas and offered him a lucrative opportunity in the United States, where he could spread his ideas. Swadhyaya is a based upon Vedic philosophy, and the members of the Swadhyaya Parivar are called Swadhyayees. Over the years, Rev. Athavales followers have taken the Bhagawad Gitas Message of the Indwelling God and Gods love for all, to millions of people, transcending caste, social, and economic barriers. Rev. Athavale personally visited tens of thousands of villages, and his adherents have followed suit to roughly 100,000 villages across India, and at least 34 nations across the globe. In these villages, Rev. Swadhyayees aim to fulfill Rev. Athavales vision of eradicating the worlds problems by creating a family united under the principle of a universal blood maker. This can happen by taking the message of the Bhagavad Gita to every corner of the globe, today, Swadhyaya has spread to numerous countries in the Caribbean, Americas, Asia, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Middle East and Africa. The divine family, has extended to many millions, per Rev. Athavales vision, Swadhyaya aims to create Universal Brotherhood under the Divine Fatherhood of God. Rev. Athavale died at the age of 83 of cardiac arrest on 25 October 2003, in Mumbai, India. He was cremated on the evening of 26 October at Tatvajnana Vidyapeeth in the Thane district, subsequently, his ashes were immersed at Ujjain, Pushkar, Haridwar, Kurukshetra, Gaya, Jagannath Puri, and lastly at Rameshwaram. In 1991 Shyam Benegal created and directed the film Antarnaad, based on Rev. Athavales Swadhyaya movements or Prayogs, starring Shabana Azmi and Kulbhushan Kharbanda, in 2004 Abir Bazaz directed the documentary Swadhyaya, based on the life and works of Rev. Athavale. The Systems, The Way and the Work, by Rev. Shri Pandurang Vaijnath Athavale Shastri, vital Connections, Self, Society, God, Perspectives on Swadhyaya, by Raj Krishan Srivastava

5. Sri Aurobindo – Sri Aurobindo was an Indian nationalist, philosopher, yogi, guru and poet. Aurobindo studied for the Indian Civil Service at Kings College, Cambridge and he was arrested in the aftermath of a number of bomb outrages linked to his organisation, but was only convicted and imprisoned for writing articles against British rule in India. He was released when no evidence could be provided, following the murder of prosecution-witness during the trial, during his stay in the jail he had mystical and spiritual experiences, after which he moved to Pondicherry, leaving politics for spiritual work. During his stay in Pondicherry, Aurobindo developed a method of practice he called Integral Yoga. The central theme of his vision was the evolution of life into a life divine. He believed in a spiritual realisation that not only liberated man but transformed his nature, in 1926, with the help of his spiritual collaborator, Mirra Alfassa, he founded the Sri Aurobindo Ashram. He died on 5 December 1950 in Pondicherry and his works also include philosophy, poetry, translations and commentaries on the Vedas, Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1943, Aurobindo Ghose was born into a Kayastha family in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, India on 15 August 1872. His mother was Swarnalata Devi, whose father was Shri Rajnarayan Bose and she had been sent to the more salubrious surroundings of Calcutta for Aurobindos birth. Aurobindo had two siblings, Benoybhusan and Manmohan, a younger sister, Sarojini, and a younger brother. Young Aurobindo was brought up speaking English but used Hindustani to communicate with servants, although his family were Bengali, his father believed British culture to be superior. Darjeeling was a centre of British life in India and the school was run by Irish nuns, through which the boys would have exposed to Christian religious teachings. Krishna Dhun Ghose wanted his sons to enter the Indian Civil Service, to achieve this it was necessary that they study in England and so it was there that the entire family moved in 1879. The three brothers were placed in the care of the Reverend W. H. Drewett in Manchester, Drewett was a minister of the Congregational Church whom Krishna Dhun Ghose knew through his British friends at Rangapur. The boys were taught Latin by Drewett and his wife and this was a prerequisite for admission to good English schools and, after two years, in 1881, the elder two siblings were enrolled at Manchester Grammar School. Aurobindo was considered too young for enrolment and he continued his studies with the Drewetts, learning history, Latin, French, geography and arithmetic. Although the Drewetts were told not to teach religion, the boys inevitably were exposed to Christian teachings and events, Drewett emigrated to Australia in 1884, causing the boys to be uprooted as they went to live with Drewetts mother in London. In September of that year, Aurobindo and Manmohan joined St Pauls School there and he learned Greek and spent the last three years reading literature and English poetry

6. Salvino Azzopardi – Salvino Azzopardi, was a Maltese Jesuit priest, philosopher at Jnana-Deepa Vidyapeeth in Pune, India. He specialised in logic, epistemology, ethics, metaphysics, mysticism, as a philosopher he combined insights from Indian and Western Philosophies. Besides JDV, Pune, India, he has taught at the Jesuit Philosophate, Kandy, Sri Lanka and Diocesan Seminary, Gozo. He is famous for his new insights on mysticism and metaphilosophy and his ideas and insights have influenced many philosophers in India. He had his schooling at the Lyceum and at an early age joined the “Lega”, the Hamrun Catholic Action “Milites Christi Regis”. In 1947, at the age of sixteen, Salvino joined the Society of Jesus at Naxxar, Malta, then four years of theology at Heythrop College, Oxon, England, where he was ordained priest on 31 July 1959. Fr Salvino did his Third Year of Novitiate in Florence, Italy, after which, i. e. in 1961, he was sent to the Gregorian University in Rome where in 1963 he took his Doctorate in Philosophy “cum laude”. Back in Malta in 1963, he was appointed House Minister at St Aloysius’ College, in his first three years in India he filled the post of Secretary of the Bishop of Dumka and of the Regional Superior. He took his vows on 2 February 1965 at Sahibganj in India. But the Superiors realized that Salvino’s real bent lay in teaching philosophy, so in 1967 Fr Salvino was sent to Benares Hindu University to study Hindi, Sanskrit and Indian Philosophy. Yet again, his pursuit was not yet to be, for in 1969 after Benares, Salvino was called to be the Rector of St Xavier’s College, Sahibganj. He left Jnana-Deepa Vidyapeeth in 1990, during his twenty years at Pune he lectured to hundreds of Jesuit students, diocesan seminarians and members of other religious orders, males and females, Indian and non-Indian. He possessed a particular charism of rendering his students fascinated by his vivid and lucid lectures, the hand-out notes he gave his students went round to other faculties and universities in India. Fr Salvino was several times invited to read papers on subjects at International Congresses. He was a speaker with solid intellectual material and practical ideas to transmit and ever stressing the bright. It sometime happened that after a lecture or a homily the congregation rose up to applaud, after all those years of intensive intellectual activity in India, Fr Salvino began to feel his health wane. So in 1990 his Superiors advised him to return to Malta to regain his health, the doctors in Malta sent him to London for a heart by-pass surgery, after which he had to spend over a year convalescing in Malta. Fr Salvino aspired to go back to India, but could not and this was, however, providential, for in 1990 the Bishop of Gozo asked him to be the Rector of the Diocesan Seminary

7. Bhalchandra Pandharinath Bahirat – Bhalchandra Pandharinath Bahirat was a philosopher and educationist who studied the Marathi literature of Jñāneśvar and other sants of Maharashtra. He was awarded an honorary Doctor of Letters from Pune University in 1991, number of books written by Bhalchandra Pandharinath Bahirat such as and The Philosophy of Jnanadeva are referenced by students, scholars and common people studying saint literature. Apart from Hindu philosophy, he studied western philosophy and its social. His work on The Philosophy of Jnanadeva was presented in 20th World Congress of Philosophy,1998 and he was affiliated to educational as well as musical institutions and gave lectures in number of colleges, at common gatherings on philosophy and saint culture of Maharashtra. Number of universities appointed him as an examiner for PhD students and he was the president of Maharashtra State Vishwa Hindu Parishad, Pandharpur Research Society and Saint Wangmay Mandal. He donated his stature literature on saints, personal library of more than 2500 books to Pune University and The Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute and this collection included some of the original manuscripts of the Jñānēśvarī and abhangs by Tukaram. The University of Pune conferred on him honorary degree of D. Litt. in 1991 along with Pandit Bhimsen Joshi and he was a member of Varkari culture of Pandharpur, Maharashtra, as a Varkari for Alandi giving religious discourses and Kirtans. His association with Varkari Sampradaya was inspired by Dada Maharaj Satarkar, most of them performed classical music programs at his home due to his appreciation and interest towards classical music. During 4 to 10 Sep 2004, University of Pune arranged birth century celebration of Bhalchandra Pandharinath Bahirat and this included talks towards Varkari calcture of Pandharpur and saint literature of Maharashtra. Discussion called Amrutache Antrang was led by Prof. Madhav Pendse, inaugurated by Prof. Dilip Chitre and included contributions from Dr. Sadanand More, Prof. Gauri More, the detailed daily updates of related events were published in local news paper Sakal. President – Pandharpur Sanshodhan Sanstha, Pandharpur, India 2, president – Pandharpur Sant Vandmay Mandal, Pandharpur, India 3. Founder – Maharashtra Dharmartha Sangeet Mahavidyalay 4, president – Maharashtra State Vishwa Hindu Parishad 5. Evaluator for PhDThesis submitted to Pune, Mumbai, Nagpur and Shivaji Universities 6, treasurer – Maharashtra Sangeet Vidyalaya, Pandharpur, India 1. The philosophy of Jnanadeva as gleaned from the Amrtanubhava 3, the Philosophy of Jnanadeva, 2nd edition 4. Jnanadeva, The Life and Works of Jnanadeva 5, Varkari Sampraday, Uday va Vikas 1. Rashtra-Bhashya on Amritanubhava by Hariharendra Swami 4, jyotsna Tika of Amritanubhava by Shri Bhaiyyakaka Kibe 1. Varakari Sampradaya Uday and Vikas 5, mukteshwarkrit Ovi Ramayan,3 Editions 3. Varkari Sampraday, Udaya ani Vikas,4

8. Homi K. Bhabha – Homi K. Bhabha is the Anne F. Rothenberg Professor of English and American Literature and Language, and the Director of the Mahindra Humanities Center at Harvard University. Such terms describe ways in which colonised peoples have resisted the power of the coloniser, in 2012, he received the Padma Bhushan award in the field of literature and education from the Indian government. He was Steinberg Visiting Professor at the University of Pennsylvania where he delivered the Richard Wright Lecture Series, at Dartmouth College, Bhabha was a faculty fellow at the School of Criticism and Theory. From 1997 to 2001 he served as Chester D. Tripp Professor in the Humanities at the University of Chicago, in 2001–02, he served as a Distinguished Visiting Professor at University College, London. He has been the Anne F. Rothenberg Professor of English and American Literature, Bhabha also serves on the Editorial Collective of Public Culture, an academic journal published by Duke University Press. He was awarded the Padma Bhushan award by the Government of India in 2012, one of his central ideas is that of hybridisation, which, taking up from Edward Saids work, describes the emergence of new cultural forms from multiculturalism. His work transformed the study of colonialism by applying post-structuralist methodologies to colonial texts, the idea of ambivalence sees culture as consisting of opposing perceptions and dimensions. Ambivalence contributes to the reason why colonial power is characterized by its belatedness, colonial signifiers of authority only acquire their meanings after the traumatic scenario of colonial difference, cultural or racial, returns the eye of power to some prior archaic image or identity. Paradoxically, however, such an image can neither be original—by virtue of the act of repetition that constructs it—nor identical—by virtue of the difference that defines it. Accordingly, the colonial presence remains ambivalent, split between its appearance as original and authoritative and its articulation as repetition and difference and this opens up the two dimensions of colonial discourse, that which is characterized by invention and mastery and that of displacement and fantasy. Bhabha presents cultural difference as an alternative to cultural diversity, enunciation is the act of utterance or expression of a culture that takes place in the Third Space. Since culture is never pre-given, it must be uttered and it is through enunciation that cultural difference is discovered and recognized. Therefore, cultural difference is a process of identification, while cultural diversity is comparative, an important aspect of colonial and post-colonial discourse is their dependence on the concept of fixity in the construction of otherness. Fixity implies repetition, rigidity and an order as well as disorder. The stereotype depends on this notion of fixity, like Bhabhas concept of hybridity, mimicry is a metonym of presence. Mimicry appears when members of a colonized society imitate and take on the culture of the colonizers, Lacan asserts, The effect of mimicry is camouflage. it is not a question of harmonizing with the background, but against a mottled background. Colonial mimicry comes from the desire for a reformed, recognizable Other, as a subject of a difference that is, as Bhabha writes, almost the same. Thus, mimicry is a sign of an articulation, a strategy which appropriates the Other as it visualizes power

9. Sri Bhagavan – Sri Bhagavan is a spiritual teacher from India, and founder of Oneness University, a spiritual school located in South India. Sri Bhagavan was born on 7 March 1949 as Vijay Kumar, in Natham Village, Gudiyatham Town, Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, Sri Bhagvan’s father was the head of the accounts department of Indian Railways and his mother was a simple village woman. In 1955, when Sri Bhagavan was 6 years of age, Sri Bhagavan attended Don Bosco School in Chennai. Later, he graduated from DG Vaishnav College in Chennai, majoring in mathematics and this was an arranged marriage following the prevalent customary practice in India for marriages decided by elders in the family. Padmavathi, who is addressed as Amma by their students, is also a person and takes an active interest. Jeevashram School located in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh was founded by Sri Bhagavan, the land for the school was taken on a lease, with the support provided by Mr. Hari Khoday, an Indian philanthropist. As director of the school, Sri Bhagavans focus was to develop an environment for children to truly flower and discover themselves, the school had 180 residential students and 200 day students from nearby villages. It was at school that his spiritual work began. In the summer of 1989, one of the students reported an experience of divine silence. Soon, many students reported similar experiences, and they were also able to pass their experiences to one another. During these experiences, children had vision of various Gods and would converse with them, Sri Bhagavan explained that the children had got in touch with Antaryamin, the inner guide who dwells in your heart that guides all beings towards greater truth. In 1991, Sri Bhagawan decided to close the school and start the work for the larger community. The school was closed a few years later in 1994, after the students had all graduated from high school. Once the decision was made to close Jeevashram School, work started in developing the programs for the public. The principal of the Jeevashram School with a group of teachers started the spiritual programs for public. The workshops were conducted as residential retreat programs conducted over 7 days or 21 days, in this very act of staying with, lies ones personal freedom. Students also reported various spiritual experiences including mystical visions of their own personal God riding a white horse, based on this shared spiritual experiences, the students and public would address Sri Bhagavan with the title Kalki. A second campus was set up in 1992 near Chennai city a place called Somangalam, in 1994, the campus of Jeevashram School was renamed as Satyaloka

10. C. T. K. Chari – Chari published extensively on extremely diverse topics, such as logic, linguistics, information theory, mathematics, quantum physics, philosophy of mind, and, of course, psi research. Cadambur Tiruvenkatachari Krishnamachari was born on 5 June 1909 in Tiruvellore and he was the third son of Tiruvenkatachari and Padmammal. He had two older brothers - C. T. Rajagopal, a mathematician, and C. T. Venugopal. They had a young sister - Kamala and they were grand nephews and niece of the illustrious brothers - Sir. P. Rajagopalachari KCSI, CIE and P. Narasimhachari - Justice in High Court of Burma. CTK and his family lived in Triplicane on Big Street and all of them studied in Hindu Higher secondary school and he did his intermediate in Presidency College, Chennai. Following the two years in the college, he got his BA from Madras Christian College and distinguished himself by also winning the Samuel Sathyanathan Gold medal for Philosophy. He then became a tutor and lecturer at American College, Madurai, in 1940, he joined MCC as an assistant professor. CTK was contributing articles to scientific magazines and journals even before he got his doctorate or before becoming a professor at MCC. His first paper – ‘An Epistemological approach to the theory of relativity was published by Mind in April 1937. Towards the end of 1952 he started to work on his doctoral thesis - On some spatial representations of time and his supervisor was Professor Parthasarathy and in 1953, his thesis was sent to a board of three judges that included Sir Karl Popper at University of London. He was awarded his PhD with top honors, something that was widely expected, at the same time the University allowed him to convert his BA degree to be an MA degree. By 1958, he was appointed the Head of the Department of Philosophy, from then to his retirement in 1969, he and his family lived at Staff Bungalow 15 on the Madras Christian College Campus at Tambaram. Following his retirement, he continued as a professor until 1976 and he also was the acting head of the department of Philosophy until 1971. The family moved outside the campus to a house which they called The Cloister where CTK. He wrote much about philosophy of science, social impact of the philosophy, metaphysics, psychology, parapsychology, cognitive sciences, CTK was skeptical, and questioned Dr. Stevensons research in the Journal for American Society of Psychical Research. He similarly discussed the research and views of Dr. B. V. Raman, in the 1980s, he slowly wound down his research activities, though his correspondence with various scholars continued to the very end. His last contribution was a paper titled Paranormal Religious Thanthology to Christian Parapsychologist in March 1992, Mythili died in Jan 1992 and CTK died within a year in Jan 1993

11. Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya – Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya was an eminent Indian Marxist philosopher. He made extensive contributions to the exploration of the materialist current in ancient Indian philosophy and he was awarded the Padma Bhushan, Indias third highest civilian honour, in 1998. Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya was born on 19 November 1918 in Calcutta and his father was a devout Hindu and a supporter of Indias freedom struggle. At a very early stage of his life Chattopadhyaya immersed himself in the left nationalist movement by joining the Association of Progressive Writers, Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya obtained his academic training in philosophy in Calcutta, West Bengal under eminent philosophers like Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan and S. N. Dasgupta. After standing first in philosophy at University of Calcutta both in B. A. and M. A. he did his research work under Prof S. N. Dasgupta. He taught philosophy at the University of Calcutta for two decades, subsequently, he was appointed a UGC Visiting Professor at the universities of Andhra Pradesh, Calcutta and Poona. His second wife was the renowned educationist and Tibetologist, Dr. Alaka Majumder Chattopadhyaya, Debiprasad Chattopadhyayas work on materialism and scientific method led to his active interactions with the international community of philosophers, historians and Indologists. He collaborated with some of the outstanding scholars of the 20th century, like Joseph Needham, George Thomson, Bongard Levin. He was fellow of the German and USSR Academies of Sciences, as mentioned above, since his youth, Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya remained active within the communist movement of India in a very non-sectarian manner. Despite being a member of the Communist Party of India. Along with his writings, he was a regular contributor to party. He died in Calcutta on 8 May 1993, throughout his philosophical and historical writings, Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya aimed to illuminate science and materialism in ancient India, and to trace their evolution. He has written this book Lokayata, A Study in Ancient Indian Materialism against the old fashioned conception that India was and is the land of dreamers and this study questioned the mainstream view that Indian philosophys sole concern was the concept of Brahman. He demolished the so-called interpretation of synthesis which sought to combine the philosophical traditions of India to form a ladder that leads to the philosophy of Advaita Vedanta. He also traced the course of development this archaic outlook eventually underwent and it was probably the first introductory book that examined Indian philosophy through an interdisciplinary approach, drawing on anthropological, economic and philological studies. The book traced the development in India from the Vedic period to later Buddhism. He views the development of Indian philosophy as the consequence of real clashes of ideas – contradiction constituted the force behind the Indian philosophical development. Dale Riepe in his review of book says that Chattopadhyaya combines the analytic sagacity of Hume with the impatient realism of Lenin

12. Haridas Chaudhuri – Haridas Chaudhuri, Bengali integral philosopher, was a correspondent with Sri Aurobindo and the founder of the California Institute of Integral Studies. He was born in May 1913 in Shyamagram in East Bengal and he studied at the Scottish Church College and later at the University of Calcutta from where he earned his doctorate in Indian philosophy. He became a professor and later the chair of philosophy at the Krishnagar College, other accounts have indicated that Chaudhuri was recommended for the job by K. D. Sethna, an eminent intellectual living at Aurobindos ashram, based in part on the fact that Chaudhuri was an devotee of Sri Aurobindo. He accepted the invitation, eager to implement in a Western educational institution the integral approach to education that he had developed as a student of Sri Aurobindo, Chaudhuri was the first to publish in the West on Integral Psychology, during the 1970s. His version of Integral Psychology has almost nothing in common with that of Ken Wilber, in a paper on the subject he reviews Indra Sens, Chaudhuris, and Wilbers definitions, as well as developing the ideas of Chaudhuri. Haridas Chaudhury in Jones, Constance A. Ryan, James D. Encyclopedia of Hinduism, new York, Facts On File. pp. 105–106. Haridas Chaudhury in, Melton, J. Gordon, religious leaders of America, a biographical guide to founders and leaders of religious bodies, churches, and spiritual groups in North America. Journal of Humanistic Psychology,15, 7-15,1975 The Evolution of Integral Consciousness,1977,1989 paperback reprint, ISBN 0-8356-0494-2 Modern mans religion,1984. ISBN 0-916985-00-8 Being, Evolution and Immortality,1988, ISBN 0-8356-0449-7 The Philosophy of Love,1988. ISBN 0-14-019117-8 Evolution of Integral Consciousness,1989, ISBN 0-8356-0494-2 The Essence of Spiritual Philosophy,1990. org. in/texts/ip2/ip2-1. 2-. htm

13. Surendranath Dasgupta – Surendranath Dasgupta was a scholar of Sanskrit and philosophy. Dasgupta was born in Kushtia, Bengal in a Vaidya family and his ancestral home was in the village Goila in Barisal District. He studied in Ripon College Calcutta and graduated with honours in Sanskrit, later, he received his masters degree from Sanskrit College, Calcutta in 1908. He got a masters degree in Western Philosophy in 1910 from the University of Calcutta. Prof. Dasgupta married Himani Devi, a lady and the younger sister of Indias pioneer film director. Dasgupta had three daughters Maitreyi Devi, Chitrita Devi and Sumitra Majumdar, Maitreyi Devi and Chitrita Devi were also famous writers. His sons Subhayu Dasgupta, Sugata Dasgupta and Prof. Subhachari Dasgupta also left behind valuable works in nation building and his last surviving and youngest child Sumitra Majumdar died in Goa in September 2008. Dasgupta had taken the Griffith Prize in 1916 and his doctorate in Indian Philosophy in 1920, maharaja Sir Manindra Chandra Nandi now urged him to go to Europe to study European philosophy at its sources, and generously bore all the expenses of his research tour. Dasgupta went to England and distinguished himself at Cambridge as a student in philosophy under Dr. J. _M. _E. _McTaggart. During this time the Cambridge University Press published the first volume of the History of Indian Philosophy and he was also appointed lecturer at Cambridge, and nominated to represent Cambridge University at the International Congress of Philosophy in Paris. Great teachers of philosophy like Ward and McTaggart, under whom he studied, looked upon him not as their pupil and he received his Cambridge doctorate for an elaborate thesis on contemporary European philosophy. He was invited in 1925 to the centenary of the Academy of Science, Leningrad. In 1935,1936 and 1939 he was invited as visiting professor to Rome, Milan, Breslau, Konigsberg, Berlin, Bonn, Cologne, Zurich, Paris, Warsaw and his career in teaching began with a short stint as a Lecturer in Rajshahi College. Later, he became a Professor of Sanskrit and Bengali in Chittagong College, after some time, he went back to graduate school and received a PhD from the University of Calcutta, and later went to England to work on his second PhD at the University of Cambridge. Following his return in 1924, Dasgupta joined the Presidency College as Professor of Philosophy, later, he became the Principal of Sanskrit College, and later joined the University of Calcutta as a Professor. In 1932, he served as President of the Indian Philosophical Congress and his own philosophy was known as Theory of Dependent Emergence. The list of his famous students includes scholars like Mircea Eliade, about 1941 or 1942 Dasgupta moved away from his wife Himani Madhuri Dasgupta and their six children, and he stayed with Suramā Mitra, his secretary and student, whom he married in 1945. Suramā Mitra held a PhD in philosophy, taught at Lucknow University, Dasguptas relationship with Suramā Mitra caused enormous pain to his near ones and was strongly disputed by Dasguptas family

14. Baba Hari Dass – He was classically trained in Ashtanga Yoga – Raja Yoga of Patanjali, as well as Kriya Yoga, Ayurveda, Samkhya, Tantra Yoga, Vedanta, and Sanskrit. Upon his arrival in the US in the early 1971, he and his teachings inspired creation of several centers and retreat programs in California. He was a proponent of Ayurveda in the United States. In an annual rendition of Indian classic Ramayana, he taught performing arts, choreography, although he does not speak, he is conversant in several languages in writing. To the local population of Nainital and Almora, Baba Hari Dass was also known as Haridas, as Haridas Baba, as Chota Maharaji, or as Harda Baba. Baba Hari Dass grew up in the lower Himalayan region of Kumaon division, which includes Dunagiri, known as the birthplace of modern-day Kriya Yoga, and the temple of Shakti or Mother Goddess. Rich in ancient lore, already known during times of Mahabharata War, the region is known as Kurmachala and encompasses Almora, Nainital, Bageshwar, Champawat, Pithoragarh. Darshana is viewed as experiencing the presence of a revered person. An American poet, Gary Snyder, who was immersed in the Buddhist Zen tradition, explaining his meaning noted, Its a gift, in India, this is called darshan. Following the experience of Sombari Baba Maharaj at the age of six his father died a year later and he had several conversations with his mother about God, soul and peace and he resolved to seek spiritual freedom. He formed the view of the world as being a box made of earth as the bottom. That box, which created a feeling of separation and sadness also induced him to weep and he decided it had to be lifted. He made known that conviction to his asking her to release him from the confinement of this box of earth. To that she said, I cant, he replied, Im going and he had left home at the age of eight and joined an ashram for young yoga renunciates in the jungles of Kumaon, where he was initiated into Brahmacharya. At that young age he practiced and became proficient in Hatha Yoga, Raja Yoga, Shatkarma, Mudras, when I was about 14 years old. I visited different villages in Himalayan mountains, in that experience he encountered several Westerners who were learning yogic practices and remembered them as true seekers. That shaped his attitude towards inclusive way of teaching yoga later on and he was initiated with Sannyasa diksha at the age of 19 years, in 1942, into the Vairagi-Tyagi Vaishnava order of Ramanandi Sampradaya. His guru, Baba Raghubar Dassji Maharaj, a reclusive sadhu and he met with his disciples only once in every two-three years to convey yoga sādhanā instructions to his advanced followers

15. Dayananda Saraswati – Dayanand Saraswati pronunciation was a Hindu religious leader and founder of the Arya Samaj, a Hindu reform movements of the Vedic tradition. He was also a scholar of the Vedic lore and Sanskrit language. He was the first to give the call for Swaraj as Indian for India in 1876, denouncing the idolatry and ritualistic worship prevalent in Hinduism at the time, he worked towards reviving Vedic ideologies. Subsequently, the philosopher and President of India, S. Radhakrishnan called him one of the makers of Modern India, one of his most influential works is the book Satyarth Prakash, which contributed to the Indian independence movement. He was a sanyasi from boyhood, and a scholar and he believed in the infallible authority of the Vedas. Maharshi Dayananda advocated the doctrine of Karma and Reincarnation and he emphasized the Vedic ideals of brahmacharya, including celibacy and devotion to God. His father was Karshanji Lalji Tiwari, a tax collector. His father also served as the head of an eminent Hindu family of the village, as such Dayanand led a comfortable early life, learning Sanskrit and studying the Vedas and other religious texts. When he was eight years old, his Yajnopavita Sanskara ceremony was performed and his father was a follower of Shiva and taught him the ways to impress Shiva. He was also taught the importance of keeping fasts, on the occasion of Shivratri, Dayananda sat awake the whole night in obedience to Shiva. On one of these fasts, he saw a mouse eating the offerings, after seeing this, he questioned that if Shiva could not defend himself against a mouse, then how could he be the savior of the massive world. The deaths of his sister and his uncle from cholera caused Dayananda to ponder the meaning of life. He began asking questions which worried his parents and he was engaged in his early teens, but he decided marriage was not for him ran away from home in 1846. Dayananda Saraswati spent nearly twenty-five years, from 1845 to 1869, as a wandering ascetic and he gave up material goods and lived a life of self-denial, devoting himself to spiritual pursuits in forests, retreats in the Himalayan Mountains, and pilgrimage sites in northern India. During these years he practiced various forms of yoga and became a disciple of a teacher named Virajanand Dandeesha. Virajanand believed that Hinduism had strayed from its roots and that many of its practices had become impure. Dayananda Sarasvati promised Virajanand that he would devote his life to restoring the rightful place of the Vedas in the Hindu faith, Dayanands mission was to ask humankind for universal brotherhood through nobility as stated in the Vedas. He believed that Hinduism had been corrupted by divergence from the principles of the Vedas

16. Cyril Desbruslais – Cyril Desbruslais is an Indian Jesuit priest, Professor of Philosophy at Jnana-Deepa Vidyapeeth, Pune, India, and an accomplished playwright. He was born in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India and he was named Cyril, after his Dad, just as his sister, born two years later, was named Maisie, after his Mum. Another sister, Marina, was two years later. She was to die of TB at the age of eighteen months, says Desbruslais, She has always been my little baby intercessor in heaven. Mum and Dad died, also of TB, in the early 1950s and we were brought up by a very loving Uncle. Desbruslais was schooled, at first in Calcutta, with the Jesuits, then with the Irish Christian brothers and he almost joined them, but thought better of it. He did his Bachelor of Commerce at St Xaviers College and worked for a year at Remington Rand of India, Desbruslais was inspired to join the Society of Jesus. He had a Jesuit Uncle, Fr Vernon Desbruslais SJ, and perhaps his personality and the love everyone had for his ways of service had some impact on him. He had been, off and on, considering being a priest, but from 1962, the whole question began to bug him so, that he decided to give it a try. He joined the Society as they were the only Catholic priests he really knew In retrospect and he says, I dont think Id have lasted very long anywhere else. The Jesuits, for all their stress on obedience, give plenty of scope for creativity and he has influenced countless young people, including Shashi Tharoor, former Minister of External Affairs, and General Shankar Roychowdhury, former Chief of the Army Staff. Apart from St Ignatius of Loyola, Pedro Arrupe SJ inspired Desbruslais most, as Desbruslais puts it, He helped the Society come alive for me. He taught me about the link between faith and justice. He was a contemplative in action. He was able to meet this charismatic personality twice, when he visited DNC, just to re-read one of his writings fires me with enthusiasm and fervor all over again. He is also impressed by Adolfo Nicolás SJ, whom he met before he became General, at the Asian Identity Seminar in Delhi. Nicolas has a joy and sense of commitment. Desbruslais is also influenced by Pierre Teilhard de Chardin SJ, who taught him about the holiness of matter and he started the group Searching in Service and Unity in 1971, when he was beginning his Theology studies at De Nobili College, Pune, India

17. Mahatma Gandhi – Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was the preeminent leader of the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights, the honorific Mahatma —applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa—is now used worldwide. In India, he is also called Bapu and Gandhiji and he is unofficially called the Father of the Nation. After his return to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants, farmers, Gandhi famously led Indians in challenging the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km Dandi Salt March in 1930, and later in calling for the British to Quit India in 1942. He was imprisoned for years, upon many occasions, in both South Africa and India. Gandhi attempted to practise nonviolence and truth in all situations, and he lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn hand-spun on a charkha. He ate simple food, and also undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and social protest. Eventually, in August 1947, Britain granted independence, but the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two dominions, a Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan. As many displaced Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs made their way to their new lands, religious violence broke out, especially in the Punjab, eschewing the official celebration of independence in Delhi, Gandhi visited the affected areas, attempting to provide solace. In the months following, he undertook several fasts unto death to promote religious harmony, the last of these, undertaken on 12 January 1948 when he was 78, also had the indirect goal of pressuring India to pay out some cash assets owed to Pakistan. Some Indians thought Gandhi was too accommodating, among them was Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist, who assassinated Gandhi on 30 January 1948 by firing three bullets into his chest. Mahatma Gandhis birthday,2 October, is commemorated in India as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday and his father, Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi, served as the diwan of Porbandar state. The Gandhi family originated from the village of Kutiana in what was then Junagadh State, in the late 17th or early 18th century, one Lalji Gandhi moved to Porbandar and entered the service of its ruler, the Rana. In 1831, Rana Khimojiraji died suddenly and was succeeded by his 12-year-old only son, as a result, Rana Khimojirajjis widow, Rani Rupaliba, became regent for her son. She soon fell out with Uttamchand and forced him to return to his village in Junagadh. While in Junagadh, Uttamchand appeared before its Nawab and saluted him with his hand instead of his right. In 1841, Vikmatji assumed the throne and reinstated Uttamchand as his diwan, in 1847, Rana Vikmatji appointed Uttamchands son, Karamchand, as diwan after disagreeing with Uttamchand over the states maintenance of a British garrison. Although he only had an education and had previously been a clerk in the state administration

18. Virchand Gandhi – Virachand Raghavji Gandhi was a Jain scholar who represented Jainism at the first World Parliament of Religions in 1893. A barrister by profession, he worked to defend the rights of Jains, and wrote and lectured extensively on Jainism, other religions, Gandhi was born on 25 August 1864 in Mahuva near Bhavnagar, to Mahuva Nagar Sheth and Raghavji Tejpalji Gandhi. His father, Raghavji, was a businessman, after completing primary and secondary school in Mahuva, Gandhi was sent to Bhavnagar for further studies. At the age of sixteen, upon placing first on the Bhavanagar matriculation examination, Gandhi continued his education at Elphinstone College, of the University of Bombay. He graduated with honors in 1884, having earned a degree in law. Gandhi was a polyglot who spoke fourteen languages, including Gujarati, Hindi, Bengali, English, Prakrit, Sanskrit, Gandhi was a friend of Mahatma Gandhi, and joined Mahatma in his experiments in dietetics. Virchand helped Mahatma in the struggle to establish a legal practice. In 1885, at the age of 21, he became the first honorary secretary of the Jain Association of India, during his term, he fought against a tax being levied by the ruler of Princely State of Palitana on pilgrims visiting Mount Shatrunjaya, Palitana. During the course of this fight Gandhi met Lord Reay, the British colonial governor of Bombay, with the help of these two individuals, he ultimately negotiated an annual fixed payment of Rs. 15000, rather than a tax on each pilgrim. Gandhi also fought to close a pig slaughterhouse that had started in 1891 close to Mount Shikharji. Gandhi spent six months in Calcutta learning Bengali and preparing his case against the slaughterhouse and he was eventually successful in getting the slaughterhouse closed. Gandhi represented Jainism at the first World Parliament of Religions, held in Chicago in 1893. Jain monk Acharya Vijayanandsuri, also known as Acharya Atmaram, had initially invited to represent Jainism at the Parliament. Atmaram recommended Gandhi to go in his stead and serve as the emissary for the religion, Atmaram and his disciple Vallabhsuri trained Gandhi for six months. Gandhi received a response at the Parliament and was asked to deliver more lectures. He was awarded medals for his lectures. He was a contemporary to Swami Vivekanand, who admired him

19. Gopal Krishna Gokhale – Gopal Krishna Gokhale CIE pronunciation was one of the social and political leaders during the Indian Independence Movement against the British Empire in India. Gokhale was a leader of the Indian National Congress and founder of the Servants of India Society. Through the Society as well as the Congress and other legislative bodies he served in, Gokhale campaigned for Indian self-rule and he was the leader of the moderate faction of the Congress party that advocated reforms by working with existing government institutions. Gopal Krishna Gokhale was born on 9 May 1866 in Kothluk village of Guhagar taluka in Ratnagiri district, being one of the first generations of Indians to receive a university education, Gokhale graduated from Elphinstone College in 1884. Gokhale became a member of the Indian National Congress in 1889, Gokhale had visited Ireland and had arranged for an Irish nationalist, Alfred Webb, to serve as President of the Indian National Congress in 1894. The following year, Gokhale became the Congresss joint secretary along with Tilak, when both became active in the Congress, however, the divergence of their views concerning how best to improve the lives of Indians became increasingly apparent. Gokhale’s first major confrontation with Tilak centred around one of his pet issues, Gokhale and his fellow liberal reformers, wishing to purge what they saw as superstitions and abuses in their native Hinduism, supported the Consent Bill to curb child marriage abuses. The bill however became law in the Bombay Presidency, the two leaders also vied for the control of the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, and the founding of the Deccan Sabha by Gokhale in 1896 was the consequence of Tilak coming out ahead. In 1905, Gokhale became president of the Indian National Congress, Gokhale used his now considerable influence to undermine his longtime rival, Tilak, refusing to support Tilak as candidate for president of the Congress in 1906. By now, Congress was split, Gokhale and Tilak were the leaders of the moderates. Tilak was an advocate of civil agitation and direct revolutionto overthrow the British Empire, as a result, the Congress Party split into two wings and was largely robbed of its effectiveness for a decade. The two sides would later patch up their differences in 1916 following Gokhales death, for Gokhale, true political change in India would only be possible when a new generation of Indians became educated as to their civil and patriotic duty to their country and to each other. The Society took up the cause of promoting Indian education in earnest, and among its many projects organised mobile libraries, founded schools, although the Society lost much of its vigour following Gokhale’s death, it still exists to this day, though its membership is small. Undeterred by such opposition, Gokhale would work directly with the British throughout his career to further his reform goals. In 1899, Gokhale was elected to the Bombay Legislative Council and he was elected to the Imperial Council of the Governor-General of India on 20 December 1901, and again on 22 May 1903 as non-officiating member representing Bombay Province. He later served in the Imperial Legislative Council after its expansion in 1909 and he there obtained a reputation as extremely knowledgeable and contributed significantly to the annual budget debates. Gokhale developed so great a reputation among the British that he was invited to London to meet with secretary of state Lord John Morley, Gokhale would help during his visit to shape the Morley-Minto Reforms introduced in 1909. Gokhale was appointed a CIE in the 1904 New Years Honours List, Gokhale was famously a mentor to Mahatma Gandhi in his formative years

20. Muhammad Iqbal – He is called the Spiritual father of Pakistan. He is considered one of the most important figures in Urdu literature, Iqbal is admired as a prominent poet by Pakistanis, Indians, Iranians, Bangladeshis, Sri Lankans and other international scholars of literature. Though Iqbal is best known as an eminent poet, he is also a highly acclaimed Muslim philosophical thinker of modern times and his first poetry book, Asrar-e-Khudi, appeared in the Persian language in 1915, and other books of poetry include Rumuz-i-Bekhudi, Payam-i-Mashriq and Zabur-i-Ajam. Amongst these, his best known Urdu works are Bang-i-Dara, Bal-i-Jibril, Zarb-i Kalim, along with his Urdu and Persian poetry, his Urdu and English lectures and letters have been very influential in cultural, social, religious and political disputes. In 1922, he was knighted by King George V, granting him the title Sir, while studying law and philosophy in England, Iqbal became a member of the London branch of the All-India Muslim League. In much of South Asia and the Urdu speaking world, Iqbal is regarded as the Shair-e-Mashriq and he is also called Mufakkir-e-Pakistan, Musawar-e-Pakistan and Hakeem-ul-Ummat. The Pakistan government officially named him a national poet and his birthday Yōm-e Welādat-e Muḥammad Iqbāl, or Iqbal Day, is a public holiday in Pakistan. In India he is remembered as the author of the popular song Saare Jahaan Se Achcha. Iqbal was born on 9 November 1877 in Sialkot within the Punjab Province of British India and his grandparents were Kashmiri Pandits, the Brahmins of the Sapru clan from Kashmir who converted to Islam. In the 19th century, when the Sikh Empire was conquering Kashmir, Iqbal often mentioned and commemorated his Kashmiri Pandit Brahmin lineage in his writings. Iqbals father, Sheikh Noor Muhammad, was a tailor, not formally educated, Iqbals mother Imam Bibi was a polite and humble woman who helped the poor and solved the problems of neighbours. She died on 9 November 1914 in Sialkot, Iqbal loved his mother, and on her death he expressed his feelings of pathos in a poetic form elegy. Who would wait for me anxiously in my native place, who would display restlessness if my letter fails to arrive. I will visit thy grave with this complaint, Who will now think of me in midnight prayers, All thy life thy love served me with devotion— When I became fit to serve thee, thou hast departed. Iqbal was four years old when he was admitted to the masjid to learn the Quran and he learned the Arabic language from his teacher Syed Mir Hassan, the head of the madrassa and professor of Arabic language at Scotch Mission College in Sialkot, where he matriculated in 1893. He received Intermediate with the Faculty of Arts diploma from Murray College Sialkot in 1895, the same year he enrolled at the Government College Lahore where he obtained his Bachelor of Arts in philosophy, English literature and Arabic in 1897, and won the Khan Bahadurddin F. S. Jalaluddin medal as he took higher numbers in Arabic class, in 1899, he received his Masters of Arts degree from the same college and had the first place in Punjab University, Lahore. Iqbal married three times, in 1895 while studying Bachelor of Arts he had his first marriage with Karim Bibi and they had daughter Miraj Begum and son Aftab Iqbal

21. Niraj Jain – Pandit Niraj Jain of Satna was a scholar of Jainism, archaeologist, poet and speaker. His contributions to Jain studies span nearly 60 years and he was also an expert on Urdu poetry, which is unusual for a Jain scholar. He was associated with several organisations and he also lectured on the Ramayana He was a proponent of preserving historical nature of ancient temples. He had travelled and lectured widely in India and overseas and he was born at Rithi, where his father Singhai Lakshmandas was an associate and follower of Ganeshprasad Varni. He was largely self-taught, he continued to study throughout his life while he struggled with running of a printing press. He earned his bachelors degree at the age of 45 along with youngest son and he was inspired by 105 Shri Ganeshprasad Varni. He sometimes accompanied him, recorded his lectures and eventually wrote the chapter of Meri Jivan Gatha, Part II. He specialised in Jain archaeology and history, theory of Karma, Ahimsa and he was a proponent of harmony among Jains of different traditions, although he frequently engaged in theological debates. He had a keen interest in study of religion from new perspectives, Hindi and he travelled extensively in India, both in North as well as South, and abroad to deliver religious discources. He visited European countries to spread the message of Non-Violence on the occasion of 2500th anniversay of the Nirvana of Bhagwan Mahaveer in 1975 and he attended 1997 Toranto and 1999 Philadelphia JAINA Conventions. He visited Many Jain Centers in North America for lectures and workshops and he participated in World Parliament of Religions at Cape Town in 1999. He wrote extensively in field of ancient Indian history, art and his documentation and study of ancient monuments and idols have been widely used by scholars. He was an expert on Indian iconography in general and Jain Art in particular and his sister Sumitra Bai, earned Sahityaratna and Vidyalankar degrees and served as the head of Jain Mahilashram in Sagar and later took diksha in 1964 and was named Aryika Vishuddhmati ji. She wrote Samadhi Deepak, Shraman Charya, Nirwan Kalyanak & Diwali Pujan Vidhi, Shravak Suman Sanchay, Trilokasara and she took sallekhana in 2002 at Nandanwan Dhariyavad. His younger brother Pandit Nirmal Jain is also a poet, author and he has been active in promoting vegetarianism and ahimsa. Shri Niraj Jain has written more than two books on various religions and spiritual topics. Some of the most popular include Jain Monuments at Khajuraho,1968,1999, gomatesh Gatha,1981,2004 Manavata kee Dhuri, 1990–2003 Based on discourses to Madhav Prasad Birla. Ratangiri ke Bahubali, Kundalpur Mahotsav Darshan, Gommateshwar Centenary Festival,1984, neeraj Jain, Bharhut Stupa Gatha, Ed

22. Syed Ali Abbas Jalalpuri – Prof. Syed Ali Abbas Jalalpuri was a professor of philosophy in Government College Lahore. He is regarded by the intellectuals of Pakistan as the Will Durant of Pakistan and he had masters degrees in Philosophy, Persian and Urdu. He wrote more than fourteen books on Philosophy, History, and he was known as a first-rate scholar, and his books seemed to herald an age of reason in Pakistan. His opinions on the subjects of history, civilization, religion, philosophy, metaphysics, in his greatest work, Riwayat-e-Falsafa, he tried to educate a common Urdu reader on the subject of Philosophy. This book served its purpose in popularizing the subject it discussed like Will Durants The Story of Philosophy and he also wrote “Jinsiyati Mutaley”, which presented a great research work on the subject in Urdu language. Wahdatul Wujud tey Punjabi Shaeri 3,10 Kianat aur Insan 11 Riwayat-e-Tamadan Qadeem 12 Khird Nama Jalalpuri 13 Maqalat Jallapuri 14 Sibd Gulchainh. Ali Abbas Jalalpuri was a rigorous historian of Philosophy and Epistemology. As the dominant mode of Philosophy in Indian Subcontinent has been “Analytical” I include him in the first trend as well, Jalalpuri was aware of the inconsistencies and contradictions in explaining Iqbal when subjected to traditional Analytical Model of Philosophy. Where to place Iqbal in the Web of Modern Philosophical Ideas. ” was the question he faced, Instead of trying to put Iqbal in the Project of Modernity and face the problem of Contradiction, Jalalpuri placed Iqbal among the traditional Islamic Philosophers or the “Kalamist”. So the “Paradox” is “Avoided”, Instead of Philosopher, Iqbal is a “Schoolmen” trying to complete “Islamic Scholasticism” after Ghezali, Jalalpuri is rigorous in his work. Due to non existent academy, the trend ended with him, “Completing Islamic Scholasticism” is certainly a part of Iqbal’s work, but it’s a Part, not the whole. In 1971, Ali Abbas Jalalpuri wrote a comprehensive critique of Iqbāl’s theology of modernity. He faults Iqbāl for selective and arbitrary interpretation of the Qur’ānic verses, to him, ambivalence towards pantheism and Ibn Arabi at some places, his devotion to the pantheist Rumi, and his idea of Absolute Ego make it clear that Iqbāl’s theology has deep roots in pantheism

23. Subhash Kak – Subhash Kak is an Indian American computer scientist. Kak is also notable for his Indological publications on the history of science, the philosophy of science, ancient astronomy, alan Sokal labeled Kak one of the leading intellectual luminaries of the Hindu-nationalist diaspora. His brother is the computer scientist Avinash Kak, Subhash Kak completed his BE from Regional Engineering College, Srinagar and Ph. D. from Indian Institute of Technology Delhi in 1970. During 1975-1976, he was a faculty at Imperial College, London. In 1977, he was a researcher at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. In 1979 joined Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, where he was the Donald C. and Elaine T. Delaune Distinguished Professor of Electrical, in 2007, he joined the Computer Science department at Oklahoma State University–Stillwater. His research is in the fields of cryptography, random sequences, artificial intelligence, quantum mechanics and he proposed a test of algorithmic randomness and a type of instantaneously trained neural networks. He was the first to formulate the discrete and the number theoretic Hilbert transforms and he claims to be amongst the first to apply information metrics to quantum systems. He was featured as one of the pioneers of quantum learning in the journal Neuroquantology edited by Cheryl Fricasso and he is featured as one of the interviewees in the area of mathematics and information in the long-standing PBS series Closer to Truth. Kak proposed a fast matrix multiplication algorithm for cross-wired meshes and he proposed the use of repeating decimals and other random sequences for error correction coding and cryptography. In cryptography, he has advanced new methods of sharing that are of importance in distributed systems such as wireless. Kak has argued there are limits to the intelligence machines can have. He asserts that. machines fall short on two counts as compared to brains, firstly, unlike brains, machines do not self-organize in a recursive manner. Secondly, machines are based on logic, whereas Natures intelligence may depend on quantum mechanics. If machines with consciousness are created, they would be living machines, second, the material world is not causally closed, and consciousness influences its evolution. Matter and minds complement each other and he is also the author of several books of poems. The training algorithm for binary data creates links to the new node that simply reflects the binary values in the training vector. Kaks three-stage protocol is a protocol for quantum cryptography suggested by Kak and this method consists of random rotations of the polarization by both parties

24. Ganapatrao Maharaj Kannur – Shri Samartha Sadaguru Ganapatrao Maharaj Kannur was an Indian guru in the Inchegeri Sampradaya. He had his primary and high-school education in Bijapur and he graduated in 1932, earning a B. Sc. Since his early childhood days young Ganapati had an inclination towards spirituality. At the age of 13 he was blessed and initiated by Sri S. S. Siddharameshwar Maharaj, the disciples chose the bank of river Krishna at Audumbar and carried out tapas for a year, strictly as instructed. Even being a graduate he decided not to any service or job. Sri Siddhrameshwar Maharaj left for heavenly abode in 1936 and he carried on the mantle passed to him by his Sadguru, and strived for the upliftment of common people for a span of six decades. To carry forward his work he founded the Shanti Kuteer Ashram. At the age of 95 years on Monday 20 September 2004 he died in Kannur House and he was an individual with high intellect, with a very simple lifestyle, and the immense ability of Loving all eternal humans without any differentiation of religion, caste or creed. Shri Ganapatrao Maharaj preached the principle of Advaita, the importance of self-satisfaction, and his teaching, in a nut shell, was Aham brahmāsmi, I am Bramha, Atma is supreme - Bramha. He focused on how an individual who has conquered his ego can be free in his birth itself. The supreme eminence of his teaching was that he explained this systematically in a language, so as even a common man could understand. Some key topics which Shri Ganapatrao Maharaj elucidated were, The importance of birth as a human being. The Atma is Supreme it is Sat – Chit – Anand meaning it is the truth, it is ever existent never to be destroyed. An individual is not what he seems to be – neither the body neither the nor the self. He is the ultimate Atma – the Ultimate Supreme, therefore every being is full of Anand in his basic state, the attainment of self enlightenment can be achieved by loving all and incinerating hatred towards others. The importance of evicting self-centered lifestyle and relinquishing ego, to be always content in self happiness and see all as self and love all. The need to take up spiritual path of the fourfold Sadhanas, the importance of listening to discourses cogitation of what is heard and bringing it into practice. Liberation from sufferings, hatred, selfish ego and achieving the Supreme Happiness means Salvation, Shri Maharaj was very much concerned about the changing lifestyles and diluting principles and human values

25. Gopinath Kaviraj – Gopinath Kaviraj was a Sanskrit-Tantra scholar, Indologist and philosopher. First appointed in 1914 a librarian, he was the Principal of Government Sanskrit College and he was also the editor of the Sarasvati Bhavana Granthamala during that period. In 1964 he received the Sahitya Akademi Award, given by the Sahitya Akademi, Indias National Academy of Letters, for his treatise on Tantra. In the same year he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, the second highest civilian honour given by Government of India, in 1971 he was conferred the Sahitya Akademi Fellowship, the highest literary honour awarded by the Sahitya Akademi, Indias National Academy of Letters. Kaviraj was the son of Vaikunthanath, a Bengali scholar of philosophy. He was born in village Dhamrai, in the present Dhaka District, after receiving his early education at Dhamrai and Kanthalia villages, he joined the K. L. Jubilee High School, Dhaka in seventh class, and studied there till tenth class. His family name was Bagchi and Kaviraj was an attached to him. In 1906 he moved to Jaipur, where four years he obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree from Maharaja College. He obtained his masters degree from the University of Allahabad, here he studied with scholars Madhusudan Ojha, Shasdhar Tarkchudamani and others. In 1910 he moved to Devnathpura, Varanasi, and started his studies, passing the M. A. from the University of Allahabad in 1914. This period allowed him to research in Tantra. It was at Varanasi that Kaviraj was exposed to various facets of ancient Tantric philosophy, in 1918, he met Vishuddhananda Paramahansa, a yogi in Kashi who demonstrated Yogic powers who was trained in Gyanganj. In 1924 he became principal of the Government Sanskrit College, later Sampurnanand Sanskrit University in Varanasi and he was the Chief Editor of Sarasvati Bhavana Texts, Sarasvati Bhavana Granthamala. However, being interested in research and his personal spiritual path, he retired from this position in 1937. In the following years, he pursued both his sadhana and scholarly research in Tantra and he also started looking after his Gurus ashram in Varanasi. He was fond of Kashi and never left it except to accept his Padma Vibhushan, in his later years, along with the scholar Sri Anirvan, he devoted himself to the study of Kashmir Shaivism. In his later years he became an ardent devotee of mystic Anandamayi Ma, in 1934 he was awarded the title of Mahamahopadhyaya in recognition of his service Sanskrit scholarship. Later in life, he remained Head of newly established Yoga-Tantra Department at the Varanaseya Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya in Varanasi from 1964 to 1969, however, because of failing health, he left it and shifted to Ma Anandamayi Ashram, Bhadaini locality

26. Stella Kramrisch – Stella Kramrisch was an American art historian, who was well known as a specialist in Indian art and Hinduism. Stella Kramrisch was born on May 29,1896 in Nikolsburg, now Mikulov and she was trained as a ballet dancer growing up in Austria. When Kramrisch was about 10 her parents moved to Vienna, one day she came across a translation of the Bhagavadgita, I was so impressed it took my breath away. She had found what she wanted to do in her life and she enrolled at the University of Vienna, studying Indian art, Sanskrit, anthropology and Indian philosophy, and earned her doctorate in 1919. That year she traveled to London in 1919 with a university delegation to give three lectures at Oxford, rabindranath Tagore heard her speak and invited her to come to India and teach at the Visva-Bharati University in Santiniketan in 1922. She was appointed professor of Indian art at the University of Calcutta in 1924 and she married the Hungarian economist, Laszlo Nemenyi, an adviser to the viceroy, in 1929. Since they lived in different cities, they saw little of each other, after the British left India in 1947, Nemenyi opted to work for the new government of Pakistan and moved to Karachi. In 1950 he was shot dead on a beach, dressed in evening clothes. After this, she moved permanently to the United States, Stella Kramrisch was the Professor of South Asian Art at the University of Pennsylvania for a long period of time. She was also the curator of Indian art at the Philadelphia Museum of Art from 1954 until 1972, in 1981 she curated Manifestations of Shiva, a large-scale exhibition of Indian art and sculpture at the Museum, which was met with both critical and popular success. She is famous for her books on the Hindu Temple, Principles of Indian Art, and she was a friend of the ballerina, designer, actress, and collector Natacha Rambova. Barbara Stoler Miller and Wayne E. Begley were among her students, prof. Kramrisch was succeeded by Michael W. Meister, who is currently the W. Norman Brown Professor of South Asia Studies and History of Art at the University of Pennsylvania. Kramrisch died on September 2,1993 at her home in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1982 the Indian government awarded Kramrisch with its Padma Bhushan award. In 1985 she was awarded the prestigious Charles Lang Freer Medal by the Smithsonian Institution, at the time of her death, Kramrisch left a bequest of 25 works to the Philadelphia Museum of Art. In addition, Kramrischs curatorial position was officially re-titled as the Stella Kramrisch Curator at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, K. G. Subramanyan on video speaking of Kramrisch in India

27. Jiddu Krishnamurti – Jiddu Krishnamurti was a philosopher, speaker and writer. In his early life he was groomed to be the new World Teacher but later rejected this mantle and his subject matter included psychological revolution, the nature of mind, meditation, inquiry, human relationships, and bringing about radical change in society. Krishnamurti was born in British India, in early adolescence he had a chance encounter with prominent occultist and theosophist Charles Webster Leadbeater in the grounds of the Theosophical Society headquarters at Adyar in Madras. He was subsequently raised under the tutelage of Annie Besant and Leadbeater, leaders of the Society at the time, as a young man, he disavowed this idea and dissolved the Order of the Star in the East, an organisation that had been established to support it. He said he had no allegiance to any nationality, caste, religion, or philosophy and he wrote many books, among them The First and Last Freedom, The Only Revolution, and Krishnamurtis Notebook. Many of his talks and discussions have been published and his last public talk was in Madras, India, in January 1986, a month before his death at his home in Ojai, California. His supporters – working through non-profit foundations in India, Great Britain and they continue to transcribe and distribute his thousands of talks, group and individual discussions, and writings by use of a variety of media formats and languages. The date of birth of Jiddu Krishnamurti is a matter of dispute and his birthplace was the small town of Madanapalle in Madras Presidency. His father, Jiddu Narayaniah, was employed as an official of the British colonial administration, Krishnamurti was fond of his mother Sanjeevamma, who died when he was ten. His parents had a total of children, of whom six survived childhood. In 1903 the family settled in Cudappah, where Krishnamurti had contracted malaria during a previous stay and he would suffer recurrent bouts of the disease over many years. A sensitive and sickly child, vague and dreamy, he was taken to be intellectually disabled. In memoirs written when he was eighteen years old Krishnamurti described psychic experiences, such as seeing his sister, who had died in 1904, during his childhood he developed a bond with nature that was to stay with him for the rest of his life. Krishnamurtis father retired at the end of 1907, being of limited means he sought employment at the headquarters of the Theosophical Society at Adyar. In addition to being a Brahmin, Narayaniah had been a theosophist since 1882 and he was eventually hired by the Society as a clerk, moving there with his family in January 1909. Narayaniah and his sons were at first assigned to live in a cottage which was located just outside the societys compound. In April 1909 Krishnamurti first met Charles Webster Leadbeater, who claimed clairvoyance, Leadbeater had noticed Krishnamurti on the Societys beach on the Adyar river, and was amazed by the most wonderful aura he had ever seen, without a particle of selfishness in it. Ernest Wood, an adjutant of Leadbeaters at the time, who helped Krishnamurti with his homework, in her biography of Krishnamurti Pupul Jayakar quotes him speaking of that period in his life some 75 years later, The boy had always said I will do whatever you want

28. U. G. Krishnamurti – Uppaluri Gopala Krishnamurti, known as U. G. Krishnamurti, was an Indian man who questioned enlightenment. Although many considered him a person, Krishnamurti often referred to his state of being as the natural state. He claimed that the demand for enlightenment was the only thing standing in the way of enlightenment itself and he rejected the very basis of thought and in doing so negated all systems of thought and knowledge. Hence he explained his assertions were experiential and not speculative, tell them that there is nothing to understand. He was unrelated to his contemporary Jiddu Krishnamurti, although the two men had a number of meetings, Krishnamurti was born on 9 July 1918 in Machilipatnam, a town in coastal Andhra Pradesh, India, and raised in the nearby town of Gudivada. His mother died seven days after he was born, and he was brought up by his grandfather, a wealthy Brahmin lawyer. Krishnamurti also became a member of the Theosophical Society during his teenage years, south Indian actress Gautami is his very close relative and model Soumya Bollapragada is his great grand daughter. During the same period of his life, Krishnamurti reportedly practised all kinds of austerities, to that end, between the ages of 14 and 21, he undertook all kinds of spiritual exercise, determined to find out whether moksha was possible. Wanting to achieve that state, he had resolved to prove that if there were people who have thus realized themselves. As part of this endeavour, he searched for a person who was an embodiment of such realization and he spent seven summers in the Himalayas with Swami Sivananda studying yoga and practising meditation. In 1939, at age 21, Krishnamurti met with renowned spiritual teacher Ramana Maharshi, Krishnamurti related that he asked Ramana, This thing called moksha, can you give it to me. – to which Ramana Maharshi purportedly replied, I can give it and this answer completely altered Krishnamurtis perceptions of the spiritual path and its practitioners, and he never again sought the counsel of those religious people. Later, Krishnamurti would say that Maharshis answer – which he perceived as arrogant – put him back on track, in 1941, he began working for the Theosophical Society, in C. W. Leadbeaters library. Shortly after, he began a lecture tour on behalf of the Society, visiting Norway, Belgium, Germany. Returning to India, he married a Brahmin woman named Kusuma Kumari in 1943, from 1947 to 1953, Krishnamurti regularly attended talks given by Jiddu Krishnamurti in Madras, India, eventually beginning a direct dialogue with him in 1953. U. G. Krishnamurti related that the two had almost daily discussions for a while, which he asserted were not providing satisfactory answers to his questions, finally, their meetings came to a halt. He described part of the discussion, And then, towards the end, I insisted. And that chappie said, You have no way of knowing it for yourself, finish – that was the end of our relationship, you see – If I have no way of knowing it, you have no way of communicating it

И тогда ты решишь, уходить тебе или. Повисла долгая тишина. Сьюзан словно во сне подошла и села с ним. - Сьюзан, - начал он, - я не был с тобой вполне откровенен. ГЛАВА 73 У Дэвида Беккера было такое ощущение, будто его лицо обдали скипидаром и подожгли.