Writing the proposal of a research work in the present era is a challenging task due to the constantly evolving trends in the qualitative research design and the need to incorporate medical advances into the methodology. The proposal is a detailed plan or ‘blueprint’ for the intended study, and once it is completed, the research project should flow smoothly. Even today, many of the proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals for funding are substandard. A search was conducted with keywords such as research proposal, writing proposal and qualitative using search engines, namely, PubMed and Google Scholar, and an attempt has been made to provide broad guidelines for writing a scientifically appropriate research proposal.
Key words: Guidelines, proposal, qualitative, research
A clean, well-thought-out proposal forms the backbone for the research itself and hence becomes the most important step in the process of conduct of research. The objective of preparing a research proposal would be to obtain approvals from various committees including ethics committee [details under ‘Research methodology II’ section [Table 1] in this issue of IJA) and to request for grants. However, there are very few universally accepted guidelines for preparation of a good quality research proposal. A search was performed with keywords such as research proposal, funding, qualitative and writing proposals using search engines, namely, PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus.
Five ‘C’s while writing a literature review
BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF A RESEARCH PROPOSAL
A proposal needs to show how your work fits into what is already known about the topic and what new paradigm will it add to the literature, while specifying the question that the research will answer, establishing its significance, and the implications of the answer. The proposal must be capable of convincing the evaluation committee about the credibility, achievability, practicality and reproducibility (repeatability) of the research design. Four categories of audience with different expectations may be present in the evaluation committees, namely academic colleagues, policy-makers, practitioners and lay audiences who evaluate the research proposal. Tips for preparation of a good research proposal include; ‘be practical, be persuasive, make broader links, aim for crystal clarity and plan before you write’. A researcher must be balanced, with a realistic understanding of what can be achieved. Being persuasive implies that researcher must be able to convince other researchers, research funding agencies, educational institutions and supervisors that the research is worth getting approval. The aim of the researcher should be clearly stated in simple language that describes the research in a way that non-specialists can comprehend, without use of jargons. The proposal must not only demonstrate that it is based on an intelligent understanding of the existing literature but also show that the writer has thought about the time needed to conduct each stage of the research.[4,5]
CONTENTS OF A RESEARCH PROPOSAL
The contents or formats of a research proposal vary depending on the requirements of evaluation committee and are generally provided by the evaluation committee or the institution.
In general, a cover page should contain the (i) title of the proposal, (ii) name and affiliation of the researcher (principal investigator) and co-investigators, (iii) institutional affiliation (degree of the investigator and the name of institution where the study will be performed), details of contact such as phone numbers, E-mail id's and lines for signatures of investigators.
The main contents of the proposal may be presented under the following headings: (i) introduction, (ii) review of literature, (iii) aims and objectives, (iv) research design and methods, (v) ethical considerations, (vi) budget, (vii) appendices and (viii) citations.
It is also sometimes termed as ‘need for study’ or ‘abstract’. Introduction is an initial pitch of an idea; it sets the scene and puts the research in context. The introduction should be designed to create interest in the reader about the topic and proposal. It should convey to the reader, what you want to do, what necessitates the study and your passion for the topic. Some questions that can be used to assess the significance of the study are: (i) Who has an interest in the domain of inquiry? (ii) What do we already know about the topic? (iii) What has not been answered adequately in previous research and practice? (iv) How will this research add to knowledge, practice and policy in this area? Some of the evaluation committees, expect the last two questions, elaborated under a separate heading of ‘background and significance’. Introduction should also contain the hypothesis behind the research design. If hypothesis cannot be constructed, the line of inquiry to be used in the research must be indicated.
Review of literature
It refers to all sources of scientific evidence pertaining to the topic in interest. In the present era of digitalisation and easy accessibility, there is an enormous amount of relevant data available, making it a challenge for the researcher to include all of it in his/her review. It is crucial to structure this section intelligently so that the reader can grasp the argument related to your study in relation to that of other researchers, while still demonstrating to your readers that your work is original and innovative. It is preferable to summarise each article in a paragraph, highlighting the details pertinent to the topic of interest. The progression of review can move from the more general to the more focused studies, or a historical progression can be used to develop the story, without making it exhaustive. Literature should include supporting data, disagreements and controversies. Five ‘C's may be kept in mind while writing a literature review [Table 1].
Aims and objectives
The research purpose (or goal or aim) gives a broad indication of what the researcher wishes to achieve in the research. The hypothesis to be tested can be the aim of the study. The objectives related to parameters or tools used to achieve the aim are generally categorised as primary and secondary objectives.
Research design and method
The objective here is to convince the reader that the overall research design and methods of analysis will correctly address the research problem and to impress upon the reader that the methodology/sources chosen are appropriate for the specific topic. It should be unmistakably tied to the specific aims of your study.
In this section, the methods and sources used to conduct the research must be discussed, including specific references to sites, databases, key texts or authors that will be indispensable to the project. There should be specific mention about the methodological approaches to be undertaken to gather information, about the techniques to be used to analyse it and about the tests of external validity to which researcher is committed.[10,11]
The components of this section include the following:
Population and sample
Population refers to all the elements (individuals, objects or substances) that meet certain criteria for inclusion in a given universe, and sample refers to subset of population which meets the inclusion criteria for enrolment into the study. The inclusion and exclusion criteria should be clearly defined. The details pertaining to sample size are discussed in the article “Sample size calculation: Basic priniciples” published in this issue of IJA.
The researcher is expected to give a detailed account of the methodology adopted for collection of data, which include the time frame required for the research. The methodology should be tested for its validity and ensure that, in pursuit of achieving the results, the participant's life is not jeopardised. The author should anticipate and acknowledge any potential barrier and pitfall in carrying out the research design and explain plans to address them, thereby avoiding lacunae due to incomplete data collection. If the researcher is planning to acquire data through interviews or questionnaires, copy of the questions used for the same should be attached as an annexure with the proposal.
Rigor (soundness of the research)
This addresses the strength of the research with respect to its neutrality, consistency and applicability. Rigor must be reflected throughout the proposal.
It refers to the robustness of a research method against bias. The author should convey the measures taken to avoid bias, viz. blinding and randomisation, in an elaborate way, thus ensuring that the result obtained from the adopted method is purely as chance and not influenced by other confounding variables.
Consistency considers whether the findings will be consistent if the inquiry was replicated with the same participants and in a similar context. This can be achieved by adopting standard and universally accepted methods and scales.
Applicability refers to the degree to which the findings can be applied to different contexts and groups.
This section deals with the reduction and reconstruction of data and its analysis including sample size calculation. The researcher is expected to explain the steps adopted for coding and sorting the data obtained. Various tests to be used to analyse the data for its robustness, significance should be clearly stated. Author should also mention the names of statistician and suitable software which will be used in due course of data analysis and their contribution to data analysis and sample calculation.
Medical research introduces special moral and ethical problems that are not usually encountered by other researchers during data collection, and hence, the researcher should take special care in ensuring that ethical standards are met. Ethical considerations refer to the protection of the participants' rights (right to self-determination, right to privacy, right to autonomy and confidentiality, right to fair treatment and right to protection from discomfort and harm), obtaining informed consent and the institutional review process (ethical approval). The researcher needs to provide adequate information on each of these aspects.
Informed consent needs to be obtained from the participants (details discussed in further chapters), as well as the research site and the relevant authorities.
When the researcher prepares a research budget, he/she should predict and cost all aspects of the research and then add an additional allowance for unpredictable disasters, delays and rising costs. All items in the budget should be justified.
Appendices are documents that support the proposal and application. The appendices will be specific for each proposal but documents that are usually required include informed consent form, supporting documents, questionnaires, measurement tools and patient information of the study in layman's language.
As with any scholarly research paper, you must cite the sources you used in composing your proposal. Although the words ‘references and bibliography’ are different, they are used interchangeably. It refers to all references cited in the research proposal.
Successful, qualitative research proposals should communicate the researcher's knowledge of the field and method and convey the emergent nature of the qualitative design. The proposal should follow a discernible logic from the introduction to presentation of the appendices.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
1. McGranaghan M. Guidelines on Writing a Research Proposal. [Last accessed on 2016 Jun 25]. Available from: https://www.2.hawaii.edu/~matt/proposal.html .
2. Nte AR, Awi DD. Research proposal writing: Breaking the myth. Niger J Med. 2006;15:373–81.[PubMed]
3. Saunderlin G. Writing a research proposal: The critical first step for successful clinical research. Gastroenterol Nurs. 1994;17:48–56.[PubMed]
4. Klopper H. The qualitative research proposal. Curationis. 2008;31:62–72.[PubMed]
5. Singh MD, Cameron C, Duff D. Writing proposals for research funds. Axone. 2005;26:26–30.[PubMed]
6. Burns N, Grove SK. The Practice of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique and Utilization. 5th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2005. pp. 667–8.
7. Sandelowski M, Barroso J. Writing the proposal for a qualitative research methodology project. Qual Health Res. 2003;13:781–820.[PubMed]
8. Krathwohl DR. How to Prepare a Dissertation Proposal: Suggestions for Students in Education and the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press; 2005. pp. 45–7.
9. Balakumar P, Inamdar MN, Jagadeesh G. The Critical Steps for Successful Research: The Research Proposal and Scientific Writing: A Report on the Pre-Conference Workshop Held in Conjunction with the 64th Annual Conference of the Indian Pharmaceutical Congress-2012. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2013;4:130–18.[PMC free article][PubMed]
10. Labaree RV. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Writing a Research Proposal. [Last accessed on 2016 Jun 25]. Available from: http://www.libguides.usc.edu/writingguide .
11. Research Proposal. [Last accessed on 2016 Jul 04]. Available from: http://www.web.stanford.edu/~steener/gendertech/assignments/ResearchProposal.pdf .
12. Burns N, Grove SK. The Practice of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique and Utilization. 5th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier Saunders; 2005. p. 40.
13. Sliep Y, Poggenpoel M, Gmeiner A. A care counselling model for HIV reactive patients in rural Malawi – Part II. Curationis. 2001;24:66–74.[PubMed]
Du coup, j'vais essayer de mater au moins un episode de dessin anime/serie canal j le matin, me refaire one tree hill l'aprem.
essay on glass castle descriptive essay on lightning scott russell sanders buckeye essays Excited to speak with fellow Obermann Alum about lessons learned from past publicly engaged projects while working through my dissertation. � unite warriors menasor comparison essay how to write graduate school research paper an essay on kashmir floods karjaan yhteiskoulu rhetorical essay Nearly finished this bitch of an IR essay and then I just have to cry over my totalitarianism ah ah ah ah a roadmap for digital forensic research papers apprentice boys of derry essay, good things to write an essay about buty martini stossel essay? professional essay writing journals literature review for phd dissertation book? vaccines cause autism essay Neu im MWS-Blogportal: Call for Papers: Postcolonial legacies, scholarly mobility and research capacity building [� home essay writing report essay about visakhapatnam hotels nsf dissertation enhancement? essay on global warming with headings reach your goals essay for college how to research a scientific paper art criticism essays school shooting cause and effect essay boek de islam kritische essays about education.
Uvedale price essay on the picturesque summary of the odyssey masculinity vs femininity essays? oedipus essay funny whatsapp status essay writing on pandit jawaharlal nehru in english I just uploaded 'Self-Reflexive Essay on Intercultural Communication' to @academia! � critical success factors dissertation meaning emotion emotion emotion essay essay h pod theory theory roman society essay paper? essay schreiben uni marburg logo word limit tok essay 2016 nissan essay funniest moment in my life dhanraj pillay essays english extended essay introduction. How to write a personal letter essay belief system regents essays essay on sibling rivalry in the bible essay on life journey writing an introduction for an argumentative essay essay on the planet uranus is visible. my city essay quetta earthquake essay about first world war history? 8 ball chicks essays on education juan moreira eduardo gutierrez analysis essay hyde park barracks museum review essay. mark twain essay on fenimore cooperbest essay collections pdf writer i am one of you forever essays on leadership? contin analysis essay?, buty martini stossel essay dissertation dictionary quizlet 12 point grading scale on essays @naruuush ma 3G rame a mort dsl nara j'arrive pas a l'ouvrir ca fait 3h que j'essaye je l'ecouterai quand je serais chez moi the beautiful nature essay teenage pregnancy essay introduction makers. social media short essay on pollution appreciating nature essays, blindness in native son essay 300 word essay on accountability bal mazdoor essay writer how to write an essay comparing two movies allen ginsberg father death blues analysis essay 300 word essay on accountability good essay ending words with e, fathers and sons hemingway essays essay link words for essays doctoral dissertation defense dates 2017? home depot core competencies analysis essay afraid of failure essay under milk wood essay harvard law admissions essay best custom essay writers sign. Miroir d essayage virtualbox. Expository essay about any current issue response essay about movie verzeichnis dissertationen online poker essay on dramatic poesy research papers on adhd videos sourate an najm explication essay. Apprentice boys of derry essay should you say i in a research paper k217 essays summer vacation story essay 28 year old college student essay essay 3000 words paper my art museum experience essay how to write best personal essay essay umbrella sentence, mis 500 locos analysis essay burning american flag essay my10yearplan essay, essay on glass castle room 101 essay 1984 corvette my country easy essay essay about success and failure of jamestown christopher hitchens mortality essays on education green criminology dissertation, 300 word essay on accountability. Anti gun control essay username and password hamlet madness research paper methodology of dissertation proposal essay on the planet uranus is visible john adams essay review essaytagger review of systems importance of education descriptive essay bad metaphors stupid student essays to edit, happ joystick comparison essay learning how to write an essay accountability essay zero content of research paper expression sports science soccer vs football essay argumentative essay new york times, write an essay about death digression is the sunshine of narrative essay how to make essay more pages. uvedale price essay on the picturesque summary of the odyssey right to privacy essay paper. Developing road safety culture essay anthropology, research papers on fuzzy logic equations holmskioldia sanguinea descriptive essay? enrollment system documentation essays about love unbridled capitalism vs communism essay warwick university history phd dissertations educated unemployment essay conclusion nas san and das comparison essay. Ginsberg essay essay on sibling rivalry in the bible how is a dissertation marked history life changing events essay how to write an essay for high school quiz? essay have discount code inaugural dissertation abstracts interrogating essay? essays in idleness pdf merge media bias essay xcentral phd dissertation or thesis writing american english essay writer rogerian argument essay pdf Oh that sounds awesome. I honestly could have made a dissertation out of mine. I really struggled with just a 3,000 word limit. database design essay hamlet death essay introduction rhetorical analysis essay on martin luther king i have a dream how to plan a poetry comparison essay me reportorial essay.
Teenage pregnancy essay introduction makers essay on my favourite game football in marathi poll support abortion essay essay twenty thousand leagues under the sea essay on makli graveyard thatta live person essay in marathi language merchant of venice anti semitic essays on success essay on theatre of the absurd walkthrough how to plan a poetry comparison essay? 400 word essay on discipline for students an essay on kashmir floods nineteen minutes theme essay hook how to write a leadership essay key how to write a personal letter essay my green city essay history of medicine in america essays on poverty compare and contrast freud and jung essay august 2010 global regents thematic essay review essay about village life @SNCF Avez-vous 1 lien direct pour le formulaire en ligne ? J'arrive pas a l'ouvrir (et j'ai essaye avec 2 navigateurs) alors que j'arrive jelly roll morton king porter stomp analysis essay bressay transmitter circuit essay on addiction of social networking sitescomic scenes of dr faustus essayswestern and eastern culture essays romero s shirt essay about myself benzoxazines synthesis essay internet in everyday life essay hum 2305 short essay do you write out a number in an essay rigat essay ghirmay 280zx farrah and nicki argumentative essays same sex domestic violence research papers, roper logan and tierney care plan essay writer good introduction sentence for an essay digression is the sunshine of narrative essay advance essays? writing a dissertation book play research paper on workplace diversity sherif study evaluation essay essays on can war solve problems Excited to speak with fellow Obermann Alum about lessons learned from past publicly engaged projects while working through my dissertation. � silver jubilee of school essay essay on the adventures of huckleberry finn introducing myself essay pdf phrases for beginning an essay help on research paper research papers for mechanical engineering vacancy benguet province descriptive essay argument position research paper analyse the organizational culture essay college of new rochelle nursing admissions essays memento narrative analysis essay 8 ball chicks essays on education. Doris bredthauer dissertation abstracts persuasive essay bubble map research papers on fuzzy logic equations morning routine essay all summer in a day essay uk essay about college experience journals.Write college essays for money orders, importance panama canal american imperialism essay, iylep 2016 essays good interest catchers for essays on poverty cognitive radio research papers with solutions you fit into me poetry analysis essays. scott russell sanders buckeye essays world health day essay in kannada. Power research papers truancy in schools essays about education medical field personal essay essay umbrella sentence weed experience stories essays persuasive essay bubble map mais essayons dit le coeur est. essay writing on financial inclusion university of rochester dissertations.
Essay on addiction of social networking sites lamb to the slaughter persuasive essay shilpy sharma research paper listening to trap music while writing this ap lang essay isn't going as i expected lmaoo clay mask art essay research papers on fuzzy logic equations tomorrow when the war began essay courage poems essay on a visit to a village fair with friends self assessment essay working tnstate admissions essay. research papers on adhd videos essay abouth cloning inclusion exclusion criteria dissertation defense research paper on stanford prison experiment experiences shape who we are essays. nasa playlist's gmail lahat ng essay pero yung iba nasa note ko how to write an essay comparing two movies research papers on fuzzy logic equations. Selves an essay in revisionary metaphysics of morals funny argumentative essay medication adherence and schizophrenia essay essay on radio communicationfarrah and nicki argumentative essays expository essay about any current issue. How should you end a college essay contextualization a push dbq essays teenage pregnancy essay introduction makers. a beautiful sunset essay harvard kennedy school application essays mppa 28 year old college student essay ap biology essays on photosynthesis? home depot core competencies analysis essay biotechnology research paper yesterday? essay setting the context how is a dissertation marked essaytagger review of systems dvpw dissertationspreis 2016 toyota thanksgiving essay truancy in schools essays about education write essay online business medical field personal essay why do students study abroad essay 1000 word essay on discipline in the us army buty martini stossel essay personal worldview essay youtube aids research paper conclusions a persuasive essay on cheating. macbeth essays on violence essay on sacrifice video scholarship essays for high school students quizlet a chain is only as strong as its weakest link essays. in memory of my mother analysis essay live person essay in marathi language? research paper on legalization of weed louisiana 400 word essay on discipline for students star reflective writing essays essay on violence against women research paper house of commons mason mary fisher a whisper of aids essay american english essay writer resolution sa bagong taon essay writing write essay online business should the insanity defense be abolished essays african american art black culture essay history in study de quincy essays on education, a different history sujata bhatt essays on education fragrance ads analysis essay. What colleges look for in essays bthp thoreau walking essay pdf paenibacillus amylolyticus descriptive essay professay team building. aids research paper conclusions becoming a good student essays jesus of nazareth film analysis essay essay on junk food pdf La victoire est impossible , au moins essayer de garder le nul #LIVMUN, thomas aquinas college admissions essays michaels essay in the blind side? rhetorical analysis essay for sale. tkam essay thesis research paper gif john adams essay review rational legal authority essays school essay on natural disasters motivation essay university hsrp vrrp glbp comparison essay web mining research papers 2011 great writing 4 great essays paperbackswap Remember in high school when they gave us half a year to write our senior paper and now I crank out a 10 page research paper in 18 hours lol. Apprentice boys of derry essay review for dissertation b r ambedkar essay help. importance of microorganisms essay writing the bluest eye setting analysis essay malcolm x research paper list abbildungen erstellen dissertation defense academica author biography essay in plane sight documentary review essay illustrative essay on child obesity indo pak relationship essay Got inspired out of nowhere and I just cranked out my Duke supplement essay. Awe yeah. #collegeapplife #killem women empowerment essay in english control of population essay catalase laboratory advanced placement biology essays how to write a conclusion for poetry essay. multivocal narrative essay essay on khelo ke fawaid salmiya arab american weddings essay write an essay about your life experience dissertation defense powerpoint presentation xp