AbstractThis review article appraises the extraction methods, compositions, and bioactivities of the essential oils from the Citrus species (family: Rutaceae) endemic to Malaysia including C. aurantifolia, C. grandis, C. hystrix, and C. microcarpa. Generally, the fresh peels and leaves of the Citrus species were extracted using different methods such as steam and water distillation, Likens-Nikerson extraction, solvent extraction, and headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME). Most of the Citrus oils were found to be rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons with limonene (1) as the major component identified in the peels of C. aurantifolia (39.3%), C. grandis (81.6%–96.9%), and C. microcarpa (94.0%), while sabinene (19) was the major component in the peels of C. hystrix (36.4%–48.5%). In addition, citronellal (20) (61.7%–72.5%), linalool (18) (56.5%), and hedycaryol (23) (19.0%) were identified as the major components in the oil of C. hystrix leaves, C. grandis blossom and C. microcarpa leaves, respectively. The C. hystrix essential oil has been experimentally shown to have antimicrobial and antifeedant activities, while no bioactivity study has been reported on the essential oils of other Malaysian Citrus species. View Full-Text
Keywords: Citrus; Rutaceae; essential oils; extraction; composition; bioactivitiesCitrus; Rutaceae; essential oils; extraction; composition; bioactivities►▼ Figures
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Md Othman, S.N.A.; Hassan, M.A.; Nahar, L.; Basar, N.; Jamil, S.; Sarker, S.D. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants. Medicines2016, 3, 13.
Md Othman SNA, Hassan MA, Nahar L, Basar N, Jamil S, Sarker SD. Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants. Medicines. 2016; 3(2):13.Chicago/Turabian Style
Md Othman, Siti N.A.; Hassan, Muhammad A.; Nahar, Lutfun; Basar, Norazah; Jamil, Shajarahtunnur; Sarker, Satyajit D. 2016. "Essential Oils from the Malaysian Citrus (Rutaceae) Medicinal Plants." Medicines 3, no. 2: 13.
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Lemon, (Citrus ×limon), small tree or spreading bush of the rue family (Rutaceae) and its edible fruit. Lemon juice is a characteristic ingredient in many pastries and desserts, such as tarts and the traditional American lemon meringue pie. The distinctive astringent flavour of the fruit, either fresh or preserved, is also used to enhance many poultry, fish, and vegetable dishes worldwide. Lemonade, made with lemon, sugar, and water, is a popular warm-weather beverage, and the juice itself is commonly added to tea. Citric acid may amount to 5 percent or more by weight of the lemon’s juice, which is also rich in vitamin C and contains smaller amounts of the B vitamins, particularly thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin.
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The lemon was introduced into Spain and North Africa sometime between the years 1000 and 1200 ce. It was further distributed through Europe by the Crusaders, who found it growing in Palestine. In 1494 the fruit was being cultivated in the Azores and shipped largely to England. The lemon was thought by 18th-century Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus to be a variety of citron (Citrus medica), though it is now known to be a separate hybridspecies.
The lemon plant forms an evergreen spreading bush or small tree, 3–6 metres (10–20 feet) high if not pruned. Its young oval leaves have a decidedly reddish tint; later they turn green. In some varieties the young branches of the lemon are angular; some have sharp thorns at the axils of the leaves. The flowers have a sweet odour and are solitary or borne in small clusters in the axils of the leaves. Reddish-tinted in the bud, the petals are usually white above and reddish purple below. The fruit is oval with a broad, low, apical nipple and forms 8 to 10 segments. The outer rind, or peel, yellow when ripe and rather thick in some varieties, is prominently dotted with oil glands. The white spongy inner part of the peel, called the mesocarp or albedo, is nearly tasteless and is the chief source of commercial grades of pectin. The seeds are small, ovoid, and pointed; occasionally fruits are seedless. The pulp is decidedly acidic.
As a cultivated tree, the lemon is now grown to a limited extent in most tropical and subtropical countries. Lemon trees for commercial planting are usually propagated by grafting or budding the desired variety on seedlings of other Citrus species, such as the sweet orange, grapefruit, mandarin orange, sour orange, or tangelo. Seedlings of these species are superior to lemon seedlings as rootstocks because they are more uniform and less susceptible to the various crown- and foot-rot diseases.
The relatively cool, equable climatic zones of coastal Italy and California are especially favourable for lemon cultivation. The trees are commonly grown in orchards, where they are spaced 5–8 metres (16–26 feet) apart. Lemon trees usually bloom throughout the year, and the fruit is picked 6 to 10 times a year. Full-sized fruit for commercial purposes is about 50 mm (2 inches) in diameter. The fruit is usually picked while still green and, after curing, may be kept three months or more in storage.
Young lemon trees reach bearing age as early as the third year after planting, and commercial crops may be expected during the fifth year. The average orchard yield per tree is 1,500 lemons a year. Careful handling is essential to prevent the loss of fruit in storage and transit because of fungal diseases. Picked lemons are graded in the packing house according to their maturity, which is indicated by their colour; yellow fruits are already fully ripe and must be sold immediately, while fruits that are still green are held in storage until they become a uniform yellow in colour.
Among the important by-products of lemons are citric acid, citrate of lime, lemon oil, and pectin. Preparation of the oil, used in perfumes, soap, and flavouring extract, is an important industry in Sicily. Citric acid is used in beverage manufacturing. Pectin has long been an important material for making fruit jellies; it has also been used in medicine in the treatment of intestinal disorders, as an antihemorrhagic, as a plasma extender, and for other purposes.